45 ug/l PHA respectively when assayed with Crotonic acid
Ruminal VFA were quantified using gas chromatography (Agilent Technologies 7890A; Santa Clara, CA, USA) with crotonic acid
as an internal standard and a capillary column (30 mx0.
High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the retention time of crotonic acid
(by-product) obtained from digested PHA was approximately 24.
P(NIPAAm-co-AAm) and p(NIPAAm-co-AAm)/XA hydrogels that contain crotonic acid
(CA) exhibit a lover critical solution temperature (LCST) at 28[degrees]C, whereas p(NIPAAm-ce;-AAm)/IA, and P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)/ACA hydrogels exhibit a lover critical solution temperature at 30.
Shelton CN USA) with crotonic acid
as the internal standard.
After the PHB is extracted or the crotonic acid
produced, remnants of the grass could be burned as a biomass energy source that produces lower net carbon emissions than fossil fuels.
The second monomer unit is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and crotonic acid
Acrylic acid (AA; > 99%, Fluka, Switzerland), Crotonic acid
(CA; > 97%, Fluka, Switzerland) monomers and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, Merck) were used as received.
Table 5 -- unsaturated and saturated fatty acids Unsaturated Saturated Crotonic acid
Butyric acid Oleic acid Caproic acid Vaccenic acid Caprylic acid Linoleic acid Capric acid Linolenic acid Lauric acid Erucid acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid
This platform chemical, crotonic acid
, can be readily converted through simple known chemical conversion steps to a range of commodity chemical intermediates including butanol and propylene.