salicylic acid, nicotinamide (NIC), glutaric acid, malonic acid, benzoic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, urea, succinic acid, saccharine sodium, Pluronic 68 AR, magnesium stearate, crotonic acid
, P-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeine, 3,5 dihydroxy benzoic acid, piperazine citrate, cinnamic acid, adipic acid, hydroquinone, isonicotinic acid, acetamide, maleic acid, and ascorbic acid.
Degradation products are crotonic acid
, linear oligomers having a crotonate end group and dimers and trimers of crotonic acid
The rumen VFA composition was determined by gas chromatography (Chrompack, model CP-9002; Chrompack International BV, Middelburg, the Netherlands) using a 50-m fused-silica column (CP-Wax Chrompack Capillary Column; Varian Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA), and crotonic acid
as the internal standard.
Replaces the specification for 3-hydroxybutanoic acid-3-hydroxypentanoic acid, copolymer (FCM substance 744) with a specific migration limit for crotonic acid
High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the retention time of crotonic acid
(by-product) obtained from digested PHA was approximately 24.97 min which was similar to the retention time of crotonic acid
(by-product) obtained from the digestion of commercially available poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (SigmaAldrich).
Shelton CN USA) with crotonic acid
as the internal standard.
In the preparation of acrylamidebased hydrogels, there are a number of studies containing sodium acrylate, crotonic acid
, maleic acid, and so forth used as hydrophilic monomers [19, 20].
The company is also working on chemical production steps, including extraction of the PHB using solvents, and a thermal method of converting the PHB into a chemical called crotonic acid
, which can be used as a feedstock for polymers.
The nickel cobalt crotonate hydrazinate is prepared by heating aqueous suspension of the corresponding metal carbonates (NiC[O.sub.3].2Ni[(OH).sub.2].4[H.sub.2]O, 1 g, 0.002 mol; CoC[O.sub.3], 1 g, 0.008 mol) and crotonic acid
(3.44 g, 0.03 mol) in 50 mL of water.
The formula also comprises at least one aqueous dispersion of particles of a polymer obtained by polymerization or copolymerization of monomers selected from the group consisting of styrene, vinyl acetate, urethanes, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and crotonic acid
; at least one acrylamide/sodium 2-methyl-2-[(1-oxo-2-propenyl) amino]-1-propanesulfonate copolymer polyelectrolyte, which is different from the polymer in aqueous dispersion; at least one surfactant with an HLB of greater than or equal to 6.
The second monomer unit is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and crotonic acid
. The third monomer unit is an ethylenically unsaturated monomer with at least one acid group.
Acrylic acid (AA; > 99%, Fluka, Switzerland), Crotonic acid
(CA; > 97%, Fluka, Switzerland) monomers and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, Merck) were used as received.