All of the isolates were found to be biofilm-positive by plate counting and crystal violet
staining (Figures 1 and 2).
Keywords: MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, Heterogeneous photocatalyst, Crystal violet
degradation, UV light.
assay: Considering that most of AMPs isolated from Phyllomedusinae frogs act at the plasma membrane (Wan et al., 2015), the crystal violet
assay was chosen as an initial screening test to assess any level of disturbance in the bacterial cell envelope permeability caused by the cutaneous secretion components (Devi, Nisha, Sakthivel, & Pandian, 2010).
with 100 [micro]l of 0.25% crystal violet
Subsequently, Congo red and crystal violet
dyes were applied; and it was observed under the polarized light that areas with amorphous matter accumulation rendered 'apple green reflections with Congo red (Figure 4).
For biofilm inhibition, crystal violet
assay was performed with slight modification.
staining was used to detect the proliferation of muscle cells.
Morphological characterization of bacterial isolates was done using staining techniques (i.e., simple staining using crystal violet
, gram Staining, spore staining and capsule staining) following same procedures as described previously in manual (Cappuccino and Sherman, 2002).
Four passages (around 25 days) later, cells were fixed and stained with crystal violet
In addition, with positive CD3: immunohistochemical markers for reactive T lymphocytes, CD20: for reactive B lymphocytes, and CD38: for plasma cells and kappa and lambda positivity, similar areas of nodular formation were found with amyloid deposition using special staining for crystal violet
(Figure 5) and Congo red (Figure 6).
Biofilm formation was measured in 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates (Costar, USA), following 24h of incubation at 35 [degrees]C, and staining with crystal violet
as previously described by Stepanovic et al.
Importantly, this real-time biofilm disruption data correlated well with the data from traditional end point assays such as the labor intensive crystal violet