Data collected included date of visit, age, species, sex, type (pet, free ranging, or wild kept in captivity), body weight, body condition score, diagnosis, procedure, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premedication used for anesthesia, drug for anesthetic induction, type of maintenance anesthesia, route and type of fluid administration, volumes of crystalloid
and colloid fluids administered, intraoperative events, estimated blood loss, duration of anesthesia, surgery duration, recovery time, recovery notes, whether birds survived to hospital discharge, time of death, total cost of hospitalization, cost of anesthesia, and nadir and peak values for heart rate, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, concentration of inhaled anesthetic, and body temperature.
Balanced vs unbalanced crystalloid
resuscitation in a near-fatal model of hemorrhagic shock and the efects on renal oxygenation, oxidative stress, and infammation.
Different methods have been tested to find effective prophylactic technique against hypotension, for example, crystalloid
preloading or coloading, colloid coloading, use of different drugs like ephedrine or phenylephrine, and no single method was found effective alone.
Administer 30 mL/kg crystalloid
for hypotension or lactate greater than or equal to 4 mmol/L.
, epinephrine, and hydrocortisone were administered.
They went on to state that 'titrated phenylephrine infusions co-administered with crystalloid
should now be recommended for prophylaxis against spinal hypotension'.
solutions like Dextrose normal saline @ 10 ml/kg and Ringers lactate @ 10 ml/kg b.
Hypotensive resuscitation, particularly the avoidance of large-volume crystalloid
use, has been shown to reduce death from hemorrhage for patients with penetrating injuries and with evacuation times under 30 minutes.
Later, multi-center studies (clinical study 6S--The Crystalloid
versus Hydroxyethyl Starch Trial (CHEST)) reignited the debate and lead to the November 2013 alert from the European Medicines Agency (PRAC) recommending the suspension of HES.
Therefore, since activation of renal elimination requires about 20 min, and distribution of crystalloid
throughout the extracellular fluid space requires about 30 min for completion , we have excluded the first mini fluid challenge related data from the present analysis.
This has been verified recently in series of mesothelioma cases with rare histologic patterns, including small cell, signet ring, adenomatoid, clear cell, and with crystalloid
4 Before that intermittent cold crystalloid
and cold blood cardioplegia was the most widely used methods of myocardial protection.