"One of the first advanced technologies to be explored, developed and introduced was X-Ray Fluorescence testing, to replace the traditional assay methods of cupellation
and titration for gold and silver.
To improve quality like that of gold by cupellation
, he forged a matrix to remove dross from evaluation.
it had contributed to exchange of values between East and West by achieving the large-scale production of high quality silver through the development of the Asian cupellation
techniques transferred from China through Korea and the Japanese unique assemblage of numerous labor-intensive small businesses based upon manual techniques in the 16th century.
Although mimetite specimens from Dry Gill are known to have been collected at least as early as 1830 there is no record of commercial ore mining there until a lease was taken by Hugh Lee Pattison, inventor of a cupellation
process for the desilvering of lead.
Martyn felt the piece should include appropriate symbolism so his design depicts the structure of the Palladium atom, vibrantly coloured flames to represent the traditional cupellation
method of fire assaying and a typical "read out" from an X Ray fluorescence machine which uses the latest technology to assay pieces prior to hallmarking.
There is no need for cupellation
or types of analysis such as gravimetric analysis, ICP/MS, or ICP/OES.
Consider Leibniz's definition of gold: "gold is a metal which resists cupellation
and is insoluble in aqua fortis; that is a distinct idea, for it gives the criteria or definition of gold."(52) But if that is the definition of gold, and thus a mark of a distinct idea of gold, then we should, it seems, based on the previous examples, be able to deduce certain intelligible properties from this concept based on that definition.
Applications have included tin concentrate smelting, tin slag reduction, direct lead smelting, copper concentrate smelting, copper matte converting, nickel laterite smelting, nickel slag reduction, zinc fuming from blast furnace slag, silver retort bullion cupellation
and the recovery of gold from complex intermediates.
The bar and the dip sample will be tested by XRF to double check they are consistent then the dip sample will be assayed by the cupellation
method, to give a highly accurate result.
Down in Newhall Street there are people more than happy (and skilled) to do all that testing (it's called cupellation
) for you, and the hallmark inside the ring is proof that the job has been done.
This product would then be carried to nearby hillsides, or seaside cliffs (both good for catching the winds to further fan the ovens) for roasting, and separation of metallic silver by cupellation
. An estimated 3,000 tons of silver were produced in this way throughout the classical period, and perhaps 1.5 million tons of lead - a byproduct used in building projects (there are ancient lead sheets remaining between some stones of the Parthenon), or in making ceramics.