Paraaminosalicylic acid, ethionamide or prothionamide, and cycloserine
or terizidone were used frequently, highlighting the limited drug options available and the necessity to use drugs with major toxicity and relatively poor efficacy.
(23) Nutritional requirements for B-6 (pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) may be increased by the use of certain medications (oral contraceptives, isoniazid, hydralazine, benserazide, penicillamine, phenelzine, cycloserine
, thiamphenicol carbidopa, etc.).
Drug susceptibility testing by 7H11 agar proportion at the National Jewish Health Mycobacteriology Laboratory (Denver, Colorado) confirmed resistance to HRZE, streptomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, ethionamide, and ciprofloxacin/ofloxacin, and reported susceptibility to cycloserine
, para-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS), linezolid, clofazimine, and bedaquiline.
Recently published WHO guidelines recommend the inclusion of the bacteriostatics ethionomide or pro- thionamide and either cycloserine
or n-aminosalicylic acid in the regimen (5).
The patient started an anti-MDR TB therapy with pyrazinamide, ethambutol, amikacin, levofloxacin, ethionamide, and cycloserine
. He finished treatment after two years.
In both studies patients were on background antidepressant therapy and then treated with d(cycloserine
, one of the active ingredients in NRX-101.
The second-line drugs (capreomycin 2.5 [micro]g/mL, cycloserine
70 [micro]g/mL, ethionamide 2.5 [micro]g/mL, kanamycin 2.5 microgram/mL, ciprofloxacin 1 [micro]g/mL) were procured from the manufacturer in pure chemical form.
The taurocholate cycloserine
cefoxitin agar medium used in this study has been shown to have lower recoverability for C.
1950's: Chemotherapy: Isoniazid (INH)/Rimifon, pyrazinamide, cycloserine
In this study, most commonly affected system was CNS, 41.28% and common offending drugs were cycloserine
, fluoroquinolones, and ethionamide.
Therapy was changed to rifabutin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, amikacin, moxifloxacin, cycloserine
, and prothionamide.
Considering the patient previous treatment schemes, and based on expert's opinion, after normalization of liver enzymes, a slower reintroduction of second-line drugs was made: starting with levofloxacin 750 mg/day and amikacin 750 mg/day, twenty days later adding ethionamide 500 mg/ day and 27 days later adding cycloserine