Food-handling techniques observed included mash, used specially for berries, spikelets (Poaceae) and cypselae
(Asteraceae); bite, for drupes; gulp, for small invertebrates; and tear, for big invertebrates.
Cypselae oblong, ellipsoid, ovoid, obovoid to turbinate, truncate, attenuate to rostrate at the apex, smooth to ribbed; glabrous to pubescent, with typical or modified twin hairs, glandular hairs and leaf-like hairs (e.
Cypselae oblong to sub-obovate, truncate, attenuate to rostrate at the apex, glabrous to pubescent, sometimes dimorphic with the marginal cypselae conspicuously larger than the central ones; pappus of scabrid to plumose bristles, capillary to narrowly paleaceous, often plumose only at the apex, equal to different in length, less commonly reduced to a crown of fringed scales, or pappus absent.
Elaphandra is characterized by the technical characters of opposite, eglandular leaves; by sterile ray florets (when present); by ovate, eglandular anther appendages, these commonly black though sometimes tan within or distally; by erect or laxly recurved (not strongly coiled), papillose style branches; and by weakly pappose, rostrate (necked) cypselae, these without elaiosomes and without obvious carpopodia.
Comments: Eleutheranthera had been treated traditionally as a unispecific discoid genus until Robinson (1992) transferred to it a second species with tuberculate cypselae, the radiate-headed Gymnolomia tenella H.
Cypselae glabrous to pubescent; pappus of plumose, capillary bristles, occasionally absent.
Cypselae densely long-villose; pappus of scabrid to barbellate bristles, the innermost flat, longer, and wider than the others and barbellate at the apex.
Cypselae rostrate at the apex, pubescent; pappus of scabrid, capillary bristles.
Cypselae rostrate at the apex, pubescent; pappus with barbellate, capillary bristles.
rostrate to slightly constricted at the apex, pubescent; pappus of scabrid, capillary bristles.
glabrous, apically tomentose to densely tomentose throughout; pappus of many barbellate to plumose bristles, basally connate, deciduous as a ring, the innermost longer and flattened.
2005 Morphology of cypselae
in subtribe Arctotidinae (Compositae--Arctotideae) and its taxonomic implications.