Urethrovaginal fixation to Cooper's ligament for correction of stress incontinence, cystocele
, and prolapse.
(6) Extensive herniation of the bladder, commonly referred to as a scrotal cystocele
, is much less frequent.
In the physical examination, rectocele was detected in 24 patients, cystocele
was detected in 72 patients, and ureterocele was detected in 16 patients (Table-I).
Among women aged 50-79 years in the Women's Health Initiative, 41% had POP, with cystocele
being the most common.
Windom specializes in Gynecological Surgery, Pelvic and Cystocele
Physical examination showed that there was the increased uterine size in the pelvic cavity and obvious cystocele
. The MRI documented multiple uterine myomas with the most significant size of 12 cm over a lower segment of the uterus, and it compressed the urethra [Figure 1].
women were included if they had a vaginal delivery with episiotomy, were living with their husband, had a BMI of 19.8-30.0, were without any disease that affected wound healing, were not using drugs affecting wound healing, had a single pregnancy with a cephalic vaginal delivery, a lack of a vaginal or vulvar infection, no rectocele or cystocele
grade 2 or higher, no septum or mass in the vagina, no problematic obstetrical history, no use of sedatives for four hours prior to delivery, and no history of vaginal or perineal reconstructive surgery.
Other potential contributors include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic urinary incontinence, history of urinary tract infection before menopause, genetic contributors, atrophic vaginitis, the presence of a bladder prolapse (cystocele
), a postvoid urinary residual over 100 mL, and in the older adult woman, catheterization and physical/mental decline (Schaeffer, Matulewiez, & Klumpp, 2016).
Raz, "4-Defect repair of grade 4 cystocele
," Journal of Urology, vol.
The aim of an anterior TVM (A-TVM) repair is to suspend a cystocele
by passing two arms of transobturator mesh into the paravesical region on each side.