The present study was planned to investigate its molecular phylogeny and diversity analysisusing mitochondrial cytochrome b, cytochrome c
and d-loop region.
They were eluted at almost the same time, with Cytochrome C
showing only a slightly higher retention time than Ribonuclease A.
The ETC consists of three proton pumps, NADH dehydrogenase (complex I), [bc.sub.1]-complex (complex III), and cytochrome c
oxidase (COX; complex IV).
For instance, cytochrome c
shuffles electrons around to help cells make energy.
The mitochondrial pathway is initiated by the release of apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c
, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G from the mitochondrial intermembrane space by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which is a complex process that involves numerous molecular players including Bcl-2 family (Brenner and Grimm, 2006; Kuwana and Newmeyer, 2003).
This event triggers the release of pro-apoptotic proteins, including cytochrome C
, from the mitochondrial intermembrane space to the cytosol where they activate caspases and endonucleases that initiates apoptosis.
Two apoptotic pathways that converge on caspase-3, with one involving caspase-8 and the other involving the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c
as well as the activation of caspase-9, have been described [6, 7].
It indicates that cytochrome C
oxidase which plays an important role in generating ATP is a primary photoreceptor of light in the red to near-IR region of the spectrum [8-10].
The human cytochrome c
oxidase is the terminal enzyme complex of the respiratory chain; it is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane where it catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c
to molecular oxygen.
Reduced glutathione (GSH), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), amidopyrine, cytochrome C
, thiobarbituric acid and all other chemicals were purchased from Sigma Chemical Company (Saint Louis, USA).
Doxorubicin treatment in vivo causes cytochrome c
releae and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, as well as increased mitochondrial efficiency superoxide dismutase activity and Bcl-2: Bax Ratio 1.
Dose-dependently elevated mRNA and protein levels of Fas, and promoted apoptotic initiator caspase-8 (active form), a molecule of a death-receptor-dependent pathway, coupled with unaltered or decreased levels of cytosolic cytochrome c
and the apoptotic initiator caspase-9 (active form), molecules of mitochondria-dependent pathways, may be indicative of cardiac apoptosis, which is Fas death-receptor apoptotic-signaling dependent, but not mitochondria pathway dependent in rats exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS).