The amplification of mitochondrial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase
I (COI) gene fragment using universal primers of Folmer et al.
In addition, a plasmid-based standard curve was created for the plant cytochrome oxidase
gene (Cox), a common housekeeping gene.
Partial small (18S) and large (28S) subunit nuclear ribo-somal RNA (rRNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase
I (mt-COI) genes were amplified from the resulting DNA preparations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The genes analyzed were: nrf-2, monocarboxylate transporter (mct1), 4 (mct4), Idh, peroxisome proliferator receptor coactivator type 1 alpha (pgc1-[alpha]), and cytochrome oxidase
IV (coxiv) and cyclophilin were used as a reference genes.
Using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase
I (COI) and spicule morphology to identify sponge colonies and COI alone to identify sisyrid larvae, this study looked at the distribution of these organisms around Otsego Lake and in the upper-Susquehanna River.
After screening, 19 pairs of MHC B-G gene and 1 pair cytochrome oxidase
I (COI) gene were selected (Table 1) and products monitored for allelic frequencies across generations.
Two of the mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase
subunit I and II (COI and COII), are most reliable and popular molecular markers.
Its function is related to key activities that are important involving metabolic enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase
and also important in the proteins essential for iron homoestasis such as ceruloplasmin.
Along with elevated plasma concentrations of C4 and C5 acylcarnitine species, the patients may experience recurrent or persistent bouts of lactic acidemia and may have cytochrome oxidase
deficiency on muscle biopsy.
Caption: Figure 1: Muscle biopsy: (a) hematoxylin eosin; (b) staining for cytochrome oxidase
; (c) Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) staining; (d) Gomori trichrome stain.
One of the vital enzymes in respiratory chain is cytochrome oxidase
(COX) that produces water without ROS production by reaction with oxygen (24).
Nine new species-locus-specific primers for three different loci of mitochondrial DNA, namely D-loop, cytochrome oxidase
subunit I (COI), and cytochrome b, were successfully designed.