White Russian General Arsene de Goulevitch, in his book Czarism
and the Revolution, wrote, "The main purveyors of funds for the revolution, however, were neither the crackpot Russian millionaires nor the armed bandits of Lenin.
IN FEBRUARY 1917, a 30-year-old Bolshevik named Valerian Osinsky wrote to his 22-year-old mistress about a coming revolution that would wipe away czarism
and deliver what Christianity couldn't: the kingdom of heaven on earth.
In Russia, everyone except the czar himself and his courtiers and the circles of black reaction knew that czarism
, the social system, was shaky in the extreme, and was bound to collapse.
There, this particular Apis mellifera, brought east by Ukrainian settlers in the dying days of Czarism
during the 1890s, has coexisted with the varroa mite for more than 100 years.
For Mazrui, the key evidence of Nkrumah's Czarism
was his assumption of the title Osagyefo, translated as Redeemer, a title reputedly bestowed on him by Ghanaian royalty.
As historian Yuri Slezkine's work has shown, the multinational and/or multi-ethnic collective identities that were evident at the end of the Soviet period reflected not only the persistence of the past (from czarism
to post-socialism) but also the traditions that were invented through Soviet cultural policies.
The "Young Russia" movement of the 186os called for a relentless war to be waged against czarism
But Marx would only prove right in that he predicted the fall of capitalism by its regression back into the doldrums of czarism
Fortunately, there is no more czarism
in Russia, and that country is no longer driving its best children into exile.
Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov is rooted in Russian religious music and iconography during czarism
, which cannot displaced by "alien" imagery from a later epoch.
In March 1917, the Jews in the Russian empire welcomed the overthrow of Czarism
as a great victory that ended their suffering and opened a new era of liberation.