Very well--then THE rain is DER Regen, if it is simply in the quiescent state of being MENTIONED, without enlargement or discussion--Nominative case; but if this rain is lying around, in a kind of a general way on the ground, it is then definitely located, it is DOING SOMETHING--that is, RESTING (which is one of the German grammar's ideas of doing something), and this throws the rain into the Dative case, and makes it DEM Regen.
For instance, if one is casually referring to a house, HAUS, or a horse, PFERD, or a dog, HUND, he spells these words as I have indicated; but if he is referring to them in the Dative case, he sticks on a foolish and unnecessary E and spells them HAUSE, PFERDE, HUNDE.
In the first place, I would leave out the Dative case. It confuses the plurals; and, besides, nobody ever knows when he is in the Dative case, except he discover it by accident--and then he does not know when or where it was that he got into it, or how long he has been in it, or how he is going to get out of it again.
As an example, we will provide the pronominal inflection for the accusative case: [phrase omitted] '(I) myself, [phrase omitted] '(youSG) yourself, [phrase omitted] '(he/she/it) himself/herself/itself, [phrase omitted] '(we) ourselves', [phrase omitted] '(youPL) yourselves', [phrase omitted] '(they) themselves'; and for the dative case
: [phrase omitted]'(I) to myself, [phrase omitted] '(youSG) to yourself, [phrase omitted] '(he/she/it) to himself / to herself / to itself, [phrase omitted] '(we) to ourselves', [phrase omitted] '(youPL) to yourselves', and [phrase omitted] '(they) to themselves'.
Mary is assigned dative case
by the preposition to, satisfying the case filter (Aoun and Li 1989; Koizumi 1994; Oehrle 1976).
We used four kinds of grammatical particles, which represent the syntactic information in Japanese: -ga, a nominative case marker; -ni, a dative case
marker; -o, an accusative case marker; and -to, a coordinator ("and").
Verbal idioms with the Experiencer in the dative case
as in (7a) occur in clauses with a fixed subject that metaphorically points to the Cause of emotion, and a Location expressed by the [+part of the human body] noun, as illustrated in (7b):
This entails some contortions: Since the class can't yet handle the dative case
or verbs of motion, no one in Chapter 1 can tell Nina straight out that Ivan has gone away, or hand her a letter from him (instead, someone tells her that on the table is a letter, in which Ivan mentions that by the time she reads it he will be in Siberia).
This section also contrasts differential marking of O arguments via an extended function of the dative case
in Apatani and considers the pragmatic contexts in which this occurs.
The Avar, for example, is able to distinguish formally the Agent, Perceiver/Cognizer and Emoter through the Ergative, Locative and Dative case
frames, respectively (Cerny 1971: 47, 50).
For example, buyer is expressed by nominative case as well as by dative case
without preposition; seller is expressed by genitive case with preposition as well as nominative case.