This success also disbanded an African-American community with roots spanning three centuries and ended the de facto segregation
One funding source is discouraging the practice of holding units for specific groups -- such as teachers, firefighters or police -- because it may result in de facto segregation
if the workers' ethnic makeup does not match the overall makeup of the community, she said.
This is another valuable addition to the historiography, presenting a long history of black suburbanization that has been largely obscured by the focus on white middle-class suburbanites and the de jure and de facto segregation
of mass suburbs.
argues that the wide acceptance of hip-hop culture among the first generation of Americans to live without de facto segregation
points to a new reality of race in America.
By contrast, Grutter affirms that the state has a compelling interest in remedying de facto segregation
, and in pursuing integration as a democratic ideal.
Still predominantly African-American - the racist element of de facto segregation
is gone, or at least beneath the surface - Sun Village has developed a strong ethnic identity.
or, alternatively, that he was distinguishing--like many Republican supporters of the bill--between de jure segregation and de facto segregation
by common consent of both races.
In many schools, there is de facto segregation
,'' commission director Toma said.
As historians have established, prior to the civil rights movement (under Jim Crow in the South and de facto segregation
in the North), there existed an elaborate code of conduct for relations between whites and blacks.
While legally required segregation in public schools was struck down by California courts long ago, de facto segregation
remained as school boundaries were drawn to correspond to existing housing patterns.
Add an unconscionable shortage of police, de facto segregation
rivaling parts of South Africa, a growing underclass and palpable political tensions, and this city by the sea looks like anything but an urban paradise.
Even if percentage plans did work, they "depend on the continued de facto segregation
of neighborhoods and schools, a reality whose permanence society should neither embrace nor rely upon.