Methods, resources, and techniques that can be used to convey information to the deception target. There are three categories of deception means: a. physical means--Activities and resources used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. (Examples include military operations, including exercises, reconnaissance, training activities, and movement of forces; the use of dummy equipment and devices; tactics; bases, logistic actions, stockpiles, and repair activity; and test and evaluation activities.) b. technical means--Military materiel resources and their associated operating techniques used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power through the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of energy; the emission or suppression of chemical or biological odors; and the emission or suppression of nuclear particles. c. administrative means--Resources, methods, and techniques to convey or deny oral, pictorial, documentary, or other physical evidence to a foreign power.
Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. US Department of Defense 2005.