Of note, "it is much easier to lead a deception target astray by reinforcing their existing beliefs, thus causing the target to ignore the contrary evidence of one's true intent, than it is to persuade a target to change his or her mind." (5) For this reason, the decision to employ deception must be based on the ability to deceive adversaries into believing something they want to believe as opposed to embracing an entirely new idea.
The deception target must choose to visit the FFO's Web site in the first place for the deception to work.
It combines intelligence on adversary information collection, processing, and dissemination; how adversary preconceptions are likely to influence the deception target's conclusions; and how the target makes decisions.
(22) While the operation is worthy of an analysis using all the military deception principles, this review will highlight two principles in particular: focusing on the deception target, and exploiting the deception target's bias.
In military deception doctrine, "the deception target is the adversary decisionmaker with the authority to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective." (24) For example, Adolf Hitler was making the strategic military decisions for the German Army, so he was the person whom Allied deception plans had to convince.
For Montagu and Cholmondeley, Hitler was Mincemeat's primary deception target, and the Nazi spy network in Spain was the intended means to get Martin's documents into Hitler's possession.
The essence of MILDEC operations rests with the so-called "Magruder Principle": briefly stated, it is generally easier to induce a deception target
to maintain a pre-existing belief than to deceive the deception target
for the purpose of changing that belief.
Planners must know how long a measure will take to affect the deception target
and for the target to react.
Joint doctrine defines "military deception" as those "actions executed to deliberately mislead" adversary decision makers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations, "thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission" An adversary's intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance networks are the channels for conveying a deceptive "story" and are not themselves the deception targets
. Rather, deception is aimed at specific military or political leaders, with the objective of inducing them to make suboptimal decisions by exploiting their known or apparent preconceptions.
A joint statement issued on behalf of Big Lottery Fund, Children In Need and Comic Relief said: "This determined group of criminals operated a sophisticated web of deception targeted
on defrauding UK funders of charities at the expense of the public who provide these funds."
A spokesman for Bridgend council's trading standards department said: 'The deception targeted
some of the most vulnerable people in the community, many of whom had been saving up for some time to go on holiday.