Variations between the two climber floras in life form may be due to tree canopy height, and in climbing mechanism may be related to support plant girth, and in dispersal mode may be related to foliar deciduousness
in host trees.
can interfere with luminosity at ground level, which can become more marked in soils that present a significant hydric deficit during dry periods.
This suggests that deciduousness
of the EXIANLING forest is influenced mainly by local microclimates rather than climatic factors of the region.
These biological responses could be semi deciduousness
(loss of plant tissue), beginning of senescence, modification of plant tissue, or changes in physiological habits (Levitt, 1980).
Approximately 60% of the species shared by these two vegetation types were phanerophytes, which demonstrated deciduousness
as a strategy to reduce water losses during the dry period (Neves, 2013).
TABLE 2: Species registered in 1 ha plot classified as "Acuri Forest" (RPPN SESC Pantanal, Municipality of Barao de Melgaco --MT) with respective families; DEC = Deciduousness
(P = evergreen; SD = semideciduous; D = deciduous).
Andrade-Lima (1981) divided the Caatinga in two strata, tree stratum and shrub stratum, in which predominates, in almost all species, the deciduousness
of the leaves on other forms of resistance to water stress; and a plant community moderately rich in cactuses and bromeliads added to other thorny species and several endemic ones.
Underpinning different plant strategies to cope with the dry season, the degree of deciduousness
in dry forest also varies from locality to locality (Apgaua et al.
A decoupled adaptation of plant traits to both factors has been suggested in tree species of dry and moist tropical forest of Bolivia, where shade tolerance was related mainly to variation in leaf resource economy traits (Poorter, 2009), whereas drought tolerance was strongly related to leaf organization, deciduousness
and to stem and root traits (Poorter & Markesteijn, 2008; Markesteijn & Poorter, 2009).
In most cases, deciduousness
developed as an adaptation not to cold, but to dryness.