In the patient with ACT, pulsus paradoxus is the result of impairment of diastolic filling of the left ventricle, and the subsequent decreased blood volume
in all four cardiac chambers.
It is possible that horseshoe crabs exposed to higher levels of external stress, such as greater lengths of time to air and higher temperatures, would lose moisture from their exposed gills and possibly become dehydrated and thus have a decreased blood volume
such that a smaller amount of blood is available for extraction.
r] ~40 000) is released in an active form from the renal juxtaglomerular cells in response to physiologic factors, including sodium depletion, decreased blood volume
and blood pressure, and [beta]-adrenergic stimulation (1).