(1) However, in the last few years, "IAMD," or integrated air and missile defense, has crept into the lexicon of combatant command operation plans, theater area air defense plans, Air Force instructions, and even USAF doctrine, gradually replacing long established terms such as air and missile defense (AMD) and defensive counterair
(DCA), and inventing new terms such as IAMD operations and IAMD forces.
Some of the skills the forces honed during Valiant Shield included anti-submarine exercises aimed at protecting carriers while they launch and recover aircraft, defensive counterair
scenarios using airpower to defend ships, and surveillance missions focused on using and combining every platform available.
Joint doctrine defines COGs as, "those characteristics, capabilities, or sources of power from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fight." (2) Airplanes that operated from Henderson Field provided the joint military forces with significant tactical capabilities, which included defensive counterair
(DCA), interdiction, and close air support (CAS).
(8) Defensive counterair
(DCA) is defense of friendly forces from enemy air and missile attacks.
Flying defensive counterair
[missions] against Iraqi fighters.
The counter-AMD construct is broken into two primary areas: offensive counterair (OCA) and defensive counterair
One of the early examples of evolving IAMD occurred during the Battle of Britain when the British effectively integrated offensive and defensive counterair
tactics with a new technology--radio detection and ranging (radar)-to produce air defense.
If the tasked mission is defensive counterair
with few air-to-air engagements, it could remain on station for an extended period of time (eight to 10 hours), producing two missions (eight sorties) per day for the four-ship.