The relation between these two time locations is marked by the transition from the past perfect (we had been in the middle of) to the past (we came to call) and clarified by the deictic word "later." The following sentence has the same combination of elements--a verb in the past, a verb in the past perfect, and a deictic phrase "a few years ago"--but the structure of time referred to is not the same, since this sentence introduces a time location which is subsequent to the naming of the tokens controversy but still a few years before the deictic centre, the time locus of the narrator.
The expanded notion of tense is reached partly through a consideration of deictic words and phrases, and partly through knowledge of a much larger linguistic sequence (without which we cannot identify an event as proleptic), so that the notion of tense is spread more widely across higher levels of discourse.
The word wei, which has been shown to function as a copula in pre-Classical Chinese (Pulleyblank 1959; Takashima 1990, 1996a, 1997), and, less precisely, as a "contrastive marker" (Peyraube 1996: 166-67) may originally have been a deictic word (with the dental initial *d-).
zhi [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII TEXT] yet another deictic word which not only forms a morphological doublet with qi, but also, in certain contexts, a syntacti c parallel.
As a grammatical category, pronouns do not possess a concrete lexical meaning, but have a generalized meaning and are deictic words
, which, according to Kobrina et al.
Common deictic words
fall into the categories of person ...
the narrator takes the listener into the realm of the memorable absent, or fully into the realm of constructive imagination, treating him there to the same deictic words
that he may see and hear what is there to be seen and heard (and to be touched or perhaps even smelled or tasted).
The exhibition's title, "Here, Now," is derived from a 2007 light box in the exhibition that shows a verdant landscape in which a stark white billboard bears those deictic words
referring to space and time.
Therefore, the received message creates the illusion of instantaneity and proximity (the use of deictic words
as "look" and the use of redundant words or postures), but which are, in the end, only simulated, imitated or forwarded unwillingly by users.
For instance, deictic words
such as kore `this' and are `that over there' as well as personal pronouns such as watasi `I' and anata `you' are regularly uttered with pointing gestures; and even nondeictic expressions to simply convey the message that I have a headache or stomach ache can be associated with a combination of pointing and a gesture.