It has been shown that the basic elements of internal microstructure are well-seen in acoustical images--individual plies, intralaminar package of carbon fiber bundles and threads, defects of the package including disorientation and folding of reinforcement, non-uniform distribution of the polymer matrix, adhesion loss between the reinforcing elements and matrix including fiber exfoliations and interlayer delaminations
Echoes are returned by each of the thousands or millions of x-y locations where a pulse was reflected by the interface between two solids or between a solid and air, as is found in cracks, delaminations
and other gaps.
0] modes from AE signals to quantitatively evaluate the occurrence of transverse cracks and delaminations
in CFRP laminates.
Germain, A study of complex delaminations
in laminated composite structures with SAMCEF, University of Liege, Belgium, 26-28 May 2008
These are "hot spots" where the surface temperatures are higher due to the thermal barrier produced by the delaminations
The load Is then Incrementally decreased until the delamination
events just disappear whereupon the load Is again Increased to the point where the delaminations
0238 / 2015 / crb end scan tester for the detection of delaminations
in concrete pavements.
These flaws are typically porosity and delaminations
Internal defects--the conditions that may destroy field reliability--are generally material gaps such as delaminations
, cracks or voids.
By using SAM these delaminations
can be also observed.
also occur on the pads beneath the leads.
com/science/article/pii/S0963869512000795) "Acoustic impact-echo investigation of concrete delaminations
using liquid droplet excitation.