NNRTIs include rilpivirine (Edurant[R]), etravirine (Intelence[R]), delavirdine
(Rescriptor[R]), efavirenz (Sustiva[R]), and nevirapine (Viramune[R]) (AIDSinfo, 2016; FDA, 2016).
 Nevirapine, delavirdine
and efavirenz, abacavir, amprenavir cause rashes frequently due to hypersensitivity which usually resolve spontaneously.
They include delavirdine
(Rescriptor), efavirenz (Sustiva, Stocrin), nevirapine (Viramune) and etravirine (Intelence).
In addition, patients received delavirdine
with or without adefovir.
In this study, one primary NNRTI mutation (Y181C) was observed (Y181C mutation causes high-level resistance to nevirapine and delavirdine
and low-level resistance to efavirenz), while no primary NRTI mutation was noted.
Mutations associated with minor resistance to protease inhibitors (L10I) and non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (E138A) were detected in sequences from patient TV919, and a mutation conferring high-level resistance to delavirdine
(P236L) was detected in patient TV725.
Two types of ARV drugs--nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), including delavirdine
, nevirapine and efavirenz, and protease inhibitors (PIs), such as ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, and indinavir--are all susceptible to increased liver metabolism as a result of alcohol-mediated induction of the CYP3A4 enzyme system.
FDA-Approved Antiretroviral Agents Nucleoside RTIs Nonnucleoside RTIs Protease inhibitors abacavir (ABC) delavirdine
(DLV) atazanavir (ATV) didanosine (ddl) efavirenz (EFZ) darunavir (DRV) emtricitabine (FTC) etravirine (ETV) fosamprenavir (Fos-APV) lamivudine (3TC) nevirapine (NVP) indinavir (IDV) stavudine (d4T) lopinavir/r (LPV/r) zidovudine (ZDV) nelfinavir (NFV) ritonavir (RTV) saquinavir (SQV) tipranavir (TPV) Nucleotide RTI Integrase inhibitor Fusion inhibitor tenofovir DF (TDF) raltegravir (RAL) enfuvirtide (T-20) CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) Notes: Six fixed-dose combinations are approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
Mean duration of each antiretroviral exposure Antiretroviral Mean duration of exposure (months) Zidovudine 26 Stavudine 23 Lamivudine 40 Didanosine 8.5 Zalcitabine 11 Abacavir 6 Tenofovir 9 Efavirenz 10.5 Nevirapine 10 Delavirdine
3 Ritonavir 8 Saquinavir 2 Indinavir 11 Nelfinavir 11 Atazanavir 10 Amprenavir 6 Saquinavir/ritonavir 8.5 Indinavir/ritonavir 8 Atazanavir/ritonavir 7 Amprenavir/ritonavir 9 Lopinavir/ritonavir 3 Darunavir/ritonavir 10.5 Table 4.
Randomized study of saquinavir with ritonavir or nelfinavir together with delavirdine
, adefovir, or both in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with virologic failure on indinavir: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 359.
(56) Since then, other scientists have loaded nanoparticles with zidovudine, (57-61) didanosine, (62,63) stavudine, (64) lamivudine, (57) delavirdine
, (64) efavirenz, (65-67) indinavir, (68,69) ritonavir (67,70) and lopinavir.