Power to improve accountability and cost structures in underlying businesses.
Organizations have downsized, restructured, delayered
, and outsourced and are increasingly characterized by instability, insecurity, and uncertainty (Sverke et al, 2002).
Google Inc., building its mighty cyber-computing and technology kingdom in the West, and Xiaomi Inc., a newly evolving but fast-growing tech power in the East, are known for their 'flat management' where the hierarchical organizational structure is delayered
and employees are encouraged to involve directly in business decision-making process.
First, they explain that new technologies, especially information technology, are creating a shift from the old integrated firms towards more delayered
organizations and outsourcing.
ELI NLI Hierarchy Network Centralisation Decentralisation Command Participation Control Empowerment Careerist leadership Politically committed activists Restricted debate Open debate Slow decision making Quick decision making Bureaucracy Delayered
Formal Flexible Diplomatic orientation/social Mobilisation orientation/ partnership politics resistance politics Priority focus on workplace and trade Focus on workplace and unions coalition building with new social movements and NGOs Predominantly north Predominantly south In this set of binary oppositions (ideal types) we highlight a chasm in organisational styles and action between labour internationalisms.
It closed and consolidated small plants, automated processes, delayered
, and outsourced.
And, of course, integrity is an increasingly crucial issue for organisations which are often 'delayered
', virtual and depend on complex systems--particularly financial and IT ones--run by specialists.
In addition to continued downsizing, the organization delayered
by a third.
Inspired by the seminal text Re-engineering the Corporation, by Michael Hammer and James Champy (Harper Business, 1993), organisations downsized, rightsized, delayered
, divested and outsourced.
* In downsized or delayered
companies, flexible working arrangements may result in some employees taking on more in order for others to do less.
Workplace Planning and Deployment Agency is citizen-centered, delayered
and mission-focused, and leverages e-government and competitive sourcing.