According to standard deontic logic
, the system can be axiomatised in more than one way; for instance:
Why is duty connected with the concept of freedom in the way described by deontic logic
(von Wright 1957):
Notwithstanding the perceived absurdity and meaninglessness of the human capacity for multiplying languages and its ensuing problems, there may be an inherent, deontic logic
in this apparent madness.
In the axiomatic reconstruction (Kalinowski 1972: 84-85) of the "old system" (the first version of deontic logic
, dating from 1951), we will find four "principles" (von Wright 1951): extensionality (PE): PA [left and right arrow] PB if A and B are actions of the same agent and have the same value of achievement; (unilateral) permission distribution (PPD): P(A [disjunction] B) [left and right arrow] (PA [disjunction] PB); permission (PP): PA [disjunction] P([logical not] A); tautology (PT): -P(A & [logical not] A); we also find the principle of deontic contingence: "a tautological act is not necessarily obligatory and an obligatory act is not necessarily forbidden".
Notwithstanding his claim of universality for FOL, Wolenski uses Second Order Logic, Deontic Logic
, and Fuzzy Logic in some of his essays.
is another example of a modal logic with roots in philosophy with work by von Wright (1951), which models attitudes like permissions and obligations for individual agents.
Instead of standard logic, which deals with truth values, the starting point in traffic comprehension should be deontic logic
, which considers deontic values such as allowed, not-allowed, compulsory and not compulsory.
In deontic logic
, by contrast, Wallaby, distributed across the manifold of actual wallabies, occupies many places at the same time, so that in killing actual wallabies, the hunter-gatherer is never killing Wallaby.
What I can say is that I have refreshed my undergraduate learning related to epistemology, empiricism, ontology, Kant, material reductionism, Cartesian interactionism, exigency, interiority, heuristic, hermeneutics, deontic logic
, idealism, emergentism, physicalism, reductionism, and phrenology; all of these I had to research on my own as the book has no glossary to assist the reader.