Treatments Mean larval Mean pupal period (days) period (days) Scopoletin 12.0 15.3 Isomeric flavonoid 14.3 17.7 Arteanuin B 12.5 15.8 Deoxy-
artemisinin 12.2 15.0 Artemetin 12.1 14.7 Artemisinin 11.4 11.5 Artemisinic acid 11.8 11.5 NSKE 25.2 16.1 Azadirachtin 21.8 -- Methanol extract 23.1 -- Hexane extract 12.3 -- Control 12.0 14.0 SEM 0.311 0.367 LSDCP = 0.01) 1.15 1.370 LSDCP = 0.05) 0.874 1.033 Df 11.0 8.0 F value 104.3 28.81 Purified compounds were administered at 0.1% of the diet and extracts were administered at 2% of the diet.
By illumination the surface of the brain with near-infrared light of two specific wavelengths (695 nm for deoxy-
and 830 nm for the oxygen-carrying oxyhemoglobin) changes in the concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin can be monitored and allow conclusions about the energy consumption, or activation of the brain region during the performance of cognitive tasks.
These chemical changes drive the haemoglobin equilibrium from oxy-haemoglobin (Hb[O.sub.2]) toward deoxy-
(Hb) and carbamino-haemoglobin (HbC[O.sub.2]).
To measure the total hemoglobin concentration spectrophotometrically in a typical clinical blood sample, these instruments must solve two problems: the intense light scattering caused by red blood cells, and the fact that the four principal species of hemoglobin (oxy-, deoxy-
, carboxy-, and methemoglobin) each have distinct but overlapping absorbance spectra.
DPG cannot bind to oxy-Hb because the entrance to the cavity is reduced greatly as Hb switches from the deoxy-
to the oxy-molecular state.