Monocyclic aromatics, methyl-[beta]-orcinolcarboxylate, and methylorsellinate exhibited 4-5-fold higher activity than acarbose , whereas depsidone salazinic acid, depside
sekikaic acid, and dibenzofuran usnic acid showed compatible [IC.sub.50] value as compared to the standard acarbose .
Tannin from Galla Chinensis is a type of hydrolyzable tannin that consists of a central glucose core, which is surrounded by several gallic acid units, and further gallic acid units can be attached through depside
bonding of additional galloyl residues.
Compared to the depsidone, psoromic acid, and to olivetoric acid ([IC.sub.50] = 221.8 [micro]M and 266.3 [micro]M for PRCC cells, 157.0 [micro]M and 37.07 [micro]M for U87MG cells), which can be considered as the alkyl depside
form of physodic acid, this latter alkyl depsidone ([IC.sub.50] = 1544.7 [micro]M for PRCC cells, 908.7 [micro]M for U87 cells) had six-fold less cytotoxicity on these cell lines (PRCC and U87MG cells) than these two related compounds, and also had the best antioxidant activity.
Depsipeptides, a class of natural antimicrobial cyclic peptides, which include one or more ester (depside
) bonds as part of their amide backbone, have been characterized in many natural environments and show a wide spectrum of biological activity.
Study of their reactivity with the radicals resulting from alcohols: depside
formation University of Limoges France (2003).
Several potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated from Jabuticaba fruit, including jaboticabin, a depside
unique to Jabuticaba.
188.8.131.52), commonly known as "Tannase", hydrolyses the ester and depside
bonds in hydrolysable tannins.
In contrast, the new chemical variety (chemotype e) found here, contains secondary substances of chemotype a (placodiolic acid) and chemotype b (with the depside
atranorin), although, some xanthones as thiophaninic acid may be present in minor or trace concentrations and chloroatranorin is absent.
, guisinol, from a marine derived strain of Emericella unguis.
 identified free phenolic acids (syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic,p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and ferulic acids) and depside
(chlorogenic acid) in the roots of E.
Flavoparmelia euplecta has been reported to contain the dibenzofuran usnic acid and the depsidone protocetraric acid ; on the other hand, Myelochroa irrugans present as bioactive compounds the depside
atranorin, the triterpenes zeorin and leucotylic acid, and the xanthone secalonic acid A ; and the main secondary metabolites in Parmelia omphalodes have been described to be the depsides
atranorin, the depsidones salazinic and lobaric acids, and the acyclic fatty acid protolichesterinic acid .
For example, some depside
and depsidone compounds are shown to present anti-inflammatory activity against microsomial prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) (Bauer et al.