For a Newtonian fluid n =1, for a dilatant
fluid n >1 and pseudoplastic fluid n <1).
For description of more complicated viscosity curves, for example, with pseudoplastic and dilatant
regions in different shear stress/shear rate ranges, the presented equations can be generalized to multimode models expressed formally as products of two or more basic equations from one of the main groups.
For a fluid with n > 1, the effective viscosity increases with shear rate, and the fluid is called shear-thickening or dilatant
For [[mu].sub.0] = 0, if p < 2 then it is a pseudo-plastic fluid, and if p > 2 then it is a dilatant
fluid (see ).
Previous studies [1-6] of compressive microfracture have suggested strongly that stress-induced microcracks in rock are caused by the tensile, rather than shearing, are axial in orientation, and are responsible for observed dilatant
and hysteretic effects.
This is attributed to the energy-dissipation increase with the shear rate, resulting in shear-thickening (dilatant
) behavior .
Iverson, "Slow episodic shear of granular materials regulated by dilatant
strengthening," Geology, vol.
Among his topics are preparing suspensions using the top-down process, the electrostatic stabilization of suspensions, sedimentation of suspensions and preventing the formation of dilatant
sediments, non-aqueous suspension concentrates, and applications of suspensions in paints and coatings.
The value of n determines the class of the fluid; that is, for n = 1, the fluid is Newtonian, n > 1, the fluid is shear-thickening (dilatant
), and n < 1, the fluid is shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) or viscoelastic.
The results obtained for both MLSS concentrations show that the flow behaviour index n was greater than one; at the lower MLSS concentration of 150 g [L.sup.-1], the sludge exhibited shear-thickening (dilatant
) behaviour, with the estimated yield [[tau].sub.y] stress equal to zero.
Deformation of rock: a pressure-sensitive, dilatant
This becomes extremely important when pumping abrasive liquids and dilatant