Objective: To investigate the manifestation characteristics of fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and its values in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy through comparing direct ophthalmoscopy
It is important that pre-regs practise basic optometric techniques including: retinoscopy, direct ophthalmoscopy
, slit-lamp and the cover test/motility examination.
Various other methods of examination were employed wherever patients were cooperative enough and felt necessary like distant direct ophthalmoscopy
, direct ophthalmoscopy
, indirect ophthalmoscopy, tonometry (Schiotz) and fluorescent staining.
The traditional fundus examination method, direct ophthalmoscopy
, is characterized by obvious subjective evaluation and poor comparison during follow-up period.
All patients underwent complete examination of both anterior and posterior segments including pupillary examination, ocular motility, and cover-uncover tests, slit lamp examination, direct ophthalmoscopy
and slit lamp bimicroscopy.
was performed on all participants in a dark room to assess lens status (normal, moderate opacity, obvious opacity, aphakia [lens absent], pseudophakia [presence of intraocular lens] with posterior capsule opacification [PCO] or pseudophakia without PCO).
Fundus photography rather than direct ophthalmoscopy
will therefore probably become the standard of care for DR.
USA), indirect (FCV 2000[R], Eyetech, USA) and direct ophthalmoscopy
(7100[R]-C, Welch Allyn, USA), applanation tonometry (Tono-Pen Vet[R], Reichert) and fluorescein staining (Fluoresceina strips[R], Ophthalmos, Brazil).
All the participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity (VA) measurement, refraction, and slit lamp examination, dilated fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy, +90D and direct ophthalmoscopy
Subjects having redness or squint were subjected to slit lamp examination, extraocular motility assessment, direct ophthalmoscopy
and fixation test using David's star.
revealed left optic disc edema, hyperemia and blurred inferio-nasal disc margins and no diabetic retinopathy (Figure 2A).
Subjects also had the cover test and fusional measurements at far (6 meters) and near (40 cm); compensated heterophoria (latent ocular deviation) according to Sheard's and Percival's criteria (measurement of sensory-motor ability of the visual system to overcome motor disturbances with fusional vergences); slit lamp biomicroscopy (examination of the anterior segment of the eye) and direct ophthalmoscopy
(examination of the posterior segment of the eye).