For example, the decision process should be made more explicit, such as tracking how the decision alternatives were defined, which information was gathered to select among alternatives, how the decision process evolved (e.g., which scenarios and factors were considered), and whether feedback data that would confirm as well as disconfirm
the decision's wisdom were collected.
This approach derives its efficiency from enabling the auditor to disconfirm
hypotheses by indirect inference.
A model or plan is incomplete if expected arguments are missing; that is, information has not been considered that might confirm or disconfirm
a key element of the model or plan.
For instance, and regarding the latter, when talking of our own in-group members, we tend to describe them with many positive, abstract verbs and broadly defined adjectives, both of which are difficult to disconfirm
. In addition, a few negative (concrete) verbs and (narrow) adjectives are acknowledged, but their linguistic form renders them readily discountable.
If he or she finds three white geese, the conclusion is not established until every possible effort has been made to locate data that would disconfirm
We urge abandonment of efforts to confirm or disconfirm
these different models, but encourage attempts to replicate our findings using different techniques and samples, and to discover the conditions that influence each model's applicability to each individual.
Despite the counterexamples with which they have been liberally peppered, many philosophers still cling to both Nicod's criterion (that AB's confirm and A nonB's disconfirm
'All A are B') and Hempel's special consequence condition (that whatever confirms a hypothesis confirms any consequence thereof).
Falsificationists argue that we should look for observations that might disconfirm
There is a large literature on the tasks that must be performed and therefore they are not addressed further here other than to note that successes and failures in the process confirm and disconfirm
the entrepreneur's ideas.
It is interpretive, inductive; it seeks to discover, not merely to confirm or disconfirm
. It typically involves collecting information over a significant span of time to eliminate ephemeral effects.
government; and yet even now WHO refuses either to confirm or disconfirm
the presence of Vibrio cholera in Sudan (see the Washington Post, "As the death toll climbs in Sudan, officials shy away from the 'cholera' label," September 14, 2018).
The problem with the confirmation bias is that it leads you to limit your information search to confirming evidence and to avoid evidence that would disconfirm
your preconceived choice.