We want our leaders to be confident but overconfidence carries a risk: inability to tolerate disconfirming
In particular, we distinguished between two types of disconfirming
information, namely unambiguous and ambiguous disconfirmation.
As Psillos (2005) explains, evidence may underdetermine theory in the sense that the former cannot prove the truth of the latter or render it probable, with the epistemic implication that 'belief in theory is never warranted by the evidence.' This sort of under-determination is an issue even in natural science, as confirmation holism raises some serious difficulties in determining whether disconfirming
evidence refutes a theoretical postulate, some auxiliary assumption or the description of initial conditions.
But he shows that over the past 30 years just counting what you know how to count, counting things that cannot be counted, and privileging belief over disconfirming
evidence has conferred on metrics "elements of a cult," whose baleful effects doctors and others toiling in their professional vineyards know too well.
will readily correct important beliefs when challenged by disconfirming
Nurses' confirming/ disconfirming
responses to patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.
In theory-testing, the deductive approach aims at confirming or disconfirming
the existence of an already known causal mechanism.
One of root causes of the status quo bias is confirmation bias, which is a psychological tendency to only pay attention to information that confirms our existing views of the world and disregard disconfirming
It is telling that Uhomoibhi does not explain why his force of 20,000 personnel doesn't gather evidence disconfirming
And, of course, it is exactly this disconfirming
evidence that can lead to a more careful, thorough, and unbiased analysis.
In other words, a bias toward confirming that success produces positive feelings predicted lower levels of Isolation and increased levels of Self-Kindness; a bias toward disconfirming
that failure leads to negative feelings predicted increased levels of Common Humanity.
Helen spoke of gaining awareness about an implicit belief and moving towards change as a result of feeling connected and having a new relational experience (i.e., disconfirming
experience): "All of the sudden instead of a very old pattern that I have had, of being isolated, seeing myself as separate, all of the sudden, just all this love in the room, all these people that were just there, were meeting my gaze, were just being present with me."