Because practitioners in the sciences need precision when speaking or writing formally, the botanical term of choice for both true seeds as well as those carrying extra parts is disseminule
, a catchall term that covers all variations of reproductive packages, botanically known by terms such as aril, achene, capsule, caryopsis, nut, drupe, and true seed (Figure 4).
is elliptical to elongate-elliptical, with semielliptical wings persisting from the strongly winged floral tube of the flower (Gentry, 1993).
According to Carlquist (1974), long-distance dispersal is often not achieved by a single individual or disseminule
Schenkiella genus novum, thorny disseminules
of unknown affinities from the lower Miocene of central Europe.
The Galapagos have received most plant-species introductions by avifaunal transport (up to 60%), including fruits, seeds, or vegetative disseminules
carried internally or attached externally (Porter 1976).