In the motor learning domain practice conditions include: the distribution of practice (e.g., massed versus distributed practice
); variability of practice (how much variability is there in the input parameters for the task, and how is that variability scheduled); mental practice, part versus whole practice (isolating certain elements of a task or working on the complete task); and the amount of guidance provided during practice.
Consistent class attendance represents a method of distributed practice
. This has been shown to be increasing the retention of information and impart the possibility of overlearning.
in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.
Second, by encouraging distributed practice
and reducing mass practice (i.e., cramming), students demonstrate increased mastery of the subject matter.
Interleaved and distributed practice
. Interleaved practice requires learners to discern among different concepts within the same practice session (Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013; Taylor & Rohrer, 2010).
Although there has been much published research on the benefits of distributed practice
(Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2006) and the testing effect (Eisenkraemer, Jaeger, & Stein, 2013), very few studies are available regarding cumulative testing in college courses.
The articles herein look at research on understanding the distributed practice
effect: strong effects on weak theoretical grounds.
Other motor learning research supports the use of rest phases in training and performance that is common in somatic practices--the concept of "distributed practice
." Whether rest periods are very brief (Alexander Technique's pausing and inhibiting), brief (the few moments between repetition and variation in Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement), or fairly long (10-15 minutes or more of Ideokinetic Constructive Rest), they appear to improve memory consolidation and recall, and actual performance.
Although the two instructional approaches were found to operate independently, they share many components and procedures, such as drill and repetition, distributed practice
, task analysis, small-group instruction, and strategy cues, all of which were found to increase the predictive power of treatment effectiveness.
In the first article, Glenna Batson examines research from neuroscience and motor learning on distributed practice
, evaluating the potential problems with repetitive movement without sufficient rest.
Recall shortly after learning reduces the amount of forgetting, and spaced or distributed practice
further facilitates retention.
If you do this explaining thing twice, you will (a) have distributed practice
(b) remembered and understood all the TIPS (techniques) and have (c) have several new acquaintances.