Part 1, on fundamentals, contains chapters on the nature of negotiation, distributive bargaining
, integrative negotiation, and closing deals.
94) Other negotiation scholars have noted that people tend to negotiate in a value-creating way only when they have the expectation that strictly distributive bargaining will cost too much, or that value-creating negotiation will be more likely than distributive bargaining to produce a desirable result.
113) The lawyer might have tried to derail that framework by turning the discussion back to subjects appropriate for positional and distributive bargaining, such as legal rights, the likely outcome of a trial, or the blame for the initial errors.
A distributive bargaining
situation is a competitive where goals of one party and the attainment of those goals are in fundamental and direct conflict with the goals of the other party.
In distributive bargaining, the parties involved in the negotiations are competing to gain the highest possible share of a fixed set of rewards: They start with a pie and bargain over how to distribute the pieces.
Distributive bargaining is commonly used in collective bargaining and other instances where parties are seeking to divide a limited and fixed set of resources.
Distributive bargaining is an inefficient means of negotiation in most circumstances.
The ultimate and integrative solution, arrived at after failed distributive bargaining, provided public-sector assistance for upgraded and new infrastructure to service the mall and surrounding parcels, adaptive re-use of some of the old strip mall, and creative support for financing of outlot development (allowing speculative structures to be built now and occupied over a longer period of time).
agenda analysis, concession strategies) and the distributive bargaining
Nash (1950) established the idea that under distributive bargaining conditions, where each party attempts to maximize their own interests in the negotiation (Pruitt 1983), and with both parties knowing each other's preferences, rational behavior by negotiators would lead them to equally share the gains of negotiation.
Distributive bargaining implies an effort to dominate the negotiation through the use of pressure tactics, persuasive arguments and threats (Pruitt 1983).
Table II summarizes the characteristics of integrative and distributive bargaining stances, adapted from work by Lewicki et al.