Part 1, on fundamentals, contains chapters on the nature of negotiation, distributive bargaining
, integrative negotiation, and closing deals.
94) Other negotiation scholars have noted that people tend to negotiate in a value-creating way only when they have the expectation that strictly distributive bargaining will cost too much, or that value-creating negotiation will be more likely than distributive bargaining to produce a desirable result.
113) The lawyer might have tried to derail that framework by turning the discussion back to subjects appropriate for positional and distributive bargaining, such as legal rights, the likely outcome of a trial, or the blame for the initial errors.
The dynamic of their distributive bargaining
often focuses on how much money one party will agree to pay to the other and how little money the other party will agree to accept.
A distributive bargaining
situation is a competitive where goals of one party and the attainment of those goals are in fundamental and direct conflict with the goals of the other party.
In distributive bargaining, the parties involved in the negotiations are competing to gain the highest possible share of a fixed set of rewards: They start with a pie and bargain over how to distribute the pieces.
Distributive bargaining is commonly used in collective bargaining and other instances where parties are seeking to divide a limited and fixed set of resources.
agenda analysis, concession strategies) and the distributive bargaining
Nash (1950) established the idea that under distributive bargaining
conditions, where each party attempts to maximize their own interests in the negotiation (Pruitt 1983), and with both parties knowing each other's preferences, rational behavior by negotiators would lead them to equally share the gains of negotiation.
Still, we know comparatively little about the relative distribution of highly integrative, traditional, and highly distributive bargaining
processes - in small or large firms.
Walton and McKersie are perhaps best known for the four subprocesses they identified: distributive bargaining
, integrarive bargaining, attitudinal structuring, and intraparty bargaining, each of which exists in a dynamic relationship with the others.
occurs only at the top and is reserved for issues not resolvable in integrated bargaining, including those issues that have been bargained unsuccessfully at lower levels.