* Insecticides: The following are listed as the most dangerous forms of pesticides by the Animal Poison Control Center: Snail bait with metaldehyde, fly bait with methomyl, systemic insecticides with the ingredients disyston or disulfoton
, mole or gopher bait with zinc phosphide and most forms of rat poison.
From the compounds assigned in vivo to the acute oral toxicity category 1 (fatal if swallowed), three (i.e., brucine, disulfoton
, and physostigmine) target the nervous system and act via specific mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of cholinesterase, antagonism of glycine receptor).
Rose and plant fertilizers can contain "disulfoton
" or another type of organophosphate which can be fatal for dogs.
Dozens of chemicals long banned in the United States, such as chlorpyrifos, disulfoton
, and methyl parathion, are still used in nonorganic coffee production, putting both farms and field workers at risk of toxic contamination.
Current use of nine of the 25 individual insecticides was positively associated with at least one type of wheeze, and one insecticide (disulfoton
) was inversely associated with non-allergic wheeze (Table 3).
and Srivastava, K., Persistence, leaching and movement of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, disulfoton
, fensulfothion, monocrotophos and tetrachlorvinphos in soil.
Organophosphorous compounds were classified clinically on the basis of toxicity asmost dangerous: TEPP, Disulfoton
. Thiodemeton, Ditionsystox, Paraxon, BSI, Demeton (E 600), Mevin Phos, ISD: EPN, Schradan, Metacide, Methyl Parathion, Monocrotophos, Dicrotophos.
Organophosphates: 0.05 mg [kg.sup.-1] for the insecticides acephate, cadusafos, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, disulfoton
, ethion, fenitrothion, phorate, malathion, methidathion, monocrotophos, parathionmethyl and triazophos; and 0.1 mg [kg.sup.-1] for methamidophos.
Under experimental conditions, rainbow trout exposed for 18-34 days to a combination of 0.05 mg/l of the organochlorine endosulfan and 0.5 mg/l of the organophosphate disulfoton
showed changes in the ultrastructure of hepatic cells, with irregular nuclei, and alterations to the lysozomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum .
OPs not detected included: dimethoate, disulfoton
, ethoprop, fensulfothion, EPN, fenthion, malathion, merphos, methyl parathion, azinphos-methyl, phorate, demeton.
The insecticide disulfoton
, O, O-dimethyl S-2-ethylthioethyl phosphorodithioate, (0.56 kg [ha.sup.-1] a.i.) was applied at the 3- to 5-leaf stage in 2000 to control aphids (Aphididea).