(24) The positive (negative) [beta] coefficient indicates an individual's utility (disutility
) from the use of the chosen attribute.
Happiness derives from work 'in the form of economic rewards' (41), an apparently instantaneous computation in an apparently frictionless 'dynamics of switching jobs or employees' (31) as regards salary ('a proxy for utility' (48), but also the prospect of 'recognition and career advancement' from which a 'disutility
for effort' is subtracted (50).
While evidence of the disutility
of transporting animals is vast (LAMBOOIJ, 2014; FAZIO et al., 2016; LI et al., 2017), the present paper presupposes that international trade in living animals can serve as a good proxy for disutility
generated by transport.
There is a leveling or equating not merely of the final elements, labor and the disutility
of labor, but also of productive goods and of utility with utility.
Utility most exceeded disutility
for tea and pills (14.8 months), followed by exercise and an injection every six months (12.7 months), and monthly injections (10 months).
In the initial equilibrium, the marginal product and marginal disutility
of labor are, respectively, higher and lower than during the transition.
Nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes lead to a greater disutility
compared to nonsevere daytime episodes .
Available transport modes and services for this trip can be continuous or discontinuous, characterising a user disutility
specification (e.g., in Figure 1(b), disutility
is relative to the time variable only);
U(x, t): the nominal disutility
for residential location X in year t.
The risk-averse employee's expected utility is considered to be additively separable between the gains and the disutility
Our work highlights the impact of these variations on the customer disutility
and transportation cost.
The health economics analyses measured the costs of insulin, needles, blood glucose tests, hypoglycaemic events and disutility
for various hypoglycaemic events, populating an NHS-focused cost-effectiveness model.