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Such rubber compositions may further include between 30 phr and 150 phr of a plasticizing resin, silica and a coupling agent that is a monohydroxysilane polysulfide having a form (Formula I) wherein radicals R, identical or different, are hydrocarbon groups, radicals R', identical or different, are divalent linking groups, and x is equal to or greater than 2.
Nanofiltration is a relatively new membrane filtration process technology employed for softening and removal of divalent ions, organics, color, bacteria, and viruses.
It is evident that vinegar residue had a positive impact on the SARs of two soils, which was related to the changes of pH and solubility of divalent ions.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the retention of nitrogen from urea coated on hydrogel spheres formed from sodium alginate and urea, crosslinked with the calcium ([Ca.sup.+2]) and zinc ([Zn.sup.+2]) divalent cations separately, for comparison between which of the two cations is better to carry out alginate cross-linking and to immobilize the urea.
The element functions mainly as a divalent cation in metalloenzymes and among these functions is the linkage of these enzymes to their corresponding substrates.
According to the diffusion-assisted charge transfer model proposed by Barati and Coley, [24] charge transfer between divalent and trivalent iron ions can be regarded as a bimolecular reaction.
Since the elasticity of fracturing fluid may enhance its ability to transport proppants [18, 44, 45], these divalent metal ions need to be shielded when the flowback fluid is recycled and reused.
One is the "unrelaxed oxygen monovacancy," namely, the [equivalent to]Si...Si[equivalent to] bond, having a Si...Si distance similar to that of regular Si-O-Si bonding (3.1 [Angstrom]) [11], and the other is the "divalent Si," having two Si-O bonds and a lone pair of electrons in a Si [sp.sup.2] hybrid orbital [15-17].
The lattice structure of LDHs, with the general formula [[[M.sup.2+.sub.1-x][M.sup.3+.sub.x][(OH).sub.2]].sup.x+][([A.sup.n-]).sub.x/n]*y[H.sub.2]O, has a positively charged brucite-shaped layers, consisting of a divalent metal ion [M.sup.2+] (e.g., [Ca.sup.2+], [Zn.sup.2+], [Mg.sup.2+], and [Ni.sup.2+]) octahedrally surrounded by six OH- hydroxyl groups [16-18].
The complexation of pectin with chitosan or the crosslinking of pectin by divalent metal cations such as [Ca.sup.2+] decreases the permeability, solubility, and disintegration extent of the polymer structure but increases the density and mechanical strength of the dosage form [23], thereby delaying the release of the drug.
Thus, we developed a divalent 84 amino acid peptide vaccine composed of three subunits: a 35 amino acid sequence from N terminal of M1 protein (M1 peptide), a 35 amino acid sequence from N terminal of M12 protein (M12 peptide), and the J14 peptide shared by conserved C terminal of these two M proteins [17].