Qalib-i-Abid and Massarrat Abid, Punjab Politics: Dyarchy
to Partition, 314.
Eventually the British brought into effect the Government of India Act 1919 which sought to placate these movements by offering limited political autonomy through a system described as "dyarchy
" where rule is shared by two powerbases (i.e.
This act also introduced a system of dyarchy
. In this system, the crucial areas of defence, foreign affairs, and customs were to be the exclusive responsibility of the centre, whereas the remaining matters were to be handled by the provinces.
(115) Qalb-i-Abid and Massarat Abid, Punjab Politics: Dyarchy
to Partition (Lahore: Pakistan Study Centre and Research Society of Pakistan, 2012), 405 and Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs Vol.
In their function of ensuring "international solidarity" in a worldwide globalisation, international organisations represent a novelty in the conceptualisation of empire, since there arises a form of dyarchy
between political and military centres (category 4 countries) and peace-making centres (international organisations), with the function of surveillance (and orientation) being perfomed by the individual, organisations, public opinion and "the multitude", to quote the title of the book by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri (2004).
That the dyarchy
which saw Manmohan Singh as prime minister even as Sonia Gandhi held the real reins of power had failed was something the leaders failed to acknowledge.
(82.) See Kalhan, supra note 12, at 100-05 (identifying and conceptualizing patterns of extraconstitutional change in Pakistan); Mohammad Waseem, Constitutionalism in Pakistan: The Changing Patterns of Dyarchy
, 53 DIOGENES 102, 109 (2006) (arguing that military regimes in Pakistan understand themselves to act "in transitional terms," to facilitate "change[s] in the constitutional edifice according to [their] own preferences and priorities").
was abolished in provinces but retained in the centre.
Bare life is the inferior term in this dyarchy
in that it is the condition that the good life must supersede or overcome.
He wrote in his diary, 'Personally, I am for it, because it means movement towards Federation and the British Government will supply the power at the Center, so that disruptive tendencies have no chance of success....It really comes to Dyarchy
and nothing else and only means decentralization, greater autonomy for provinces and less scope for parliamentary interference'.
It was a 'dyarchy
', in which master and mistress had equal status, if different functions.
By the end of the Kangxi reign [1661-1722], the Qing was a secure and prosperous empire, with greatly expanded frontiers and a functioning dyarchy
of Chinese and Manchu/Mongol elites.