Muscle strength evaluation of the shoulder internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) is often used by clinicians to assess muscle performance and to guide rehabilitation in the return-to-sports phase.1 Isokinetic dynamometry
(ID) assesses maximal muscle concentric, eccentric and isometric strength under constant velocities throughout the whole range of motion (ROM) of different joints2,3 providing mechanically valid and reliable measures of torque, position and velocity for both clinical and research purposes.4 Currently ID is considered the gold standard method for strength assessment5 mainly because the results are not influenced by strength imbalance between the participant and the assessor.
predicts future outcomes in aging adults.
Intraexaminer reliability of hand-held dynamometry
in the upper extremity: a systematic review.
After determination of the BFR point, the isometric strength was measured by means of manual dynamometry
(right and left) and scapular dynamometry
(32)-Wrigley T.; Strauss G.; Stregth assessment by isokinetic dynamometry
. In: C.Gore: Physiological Tests for Elite athletes /Australian Sports commission.
is also commonly used to assess lower limb strength and power and has consistently been found to elicit 'moderate' to 'excellent' test-retest reliability with ICC values between 0.71-0.99 tested over a range of velocities and muscle actions (Abernethy et al., 1995; Gleeson and Mercer, 1992; Li et al., 1996; Pincivero et al., 1997).
[14,15] Furthermore, it has very good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 0.86 - 0.99), handgrip strength was also very good (ICC 0.89 - 0.97) and dynamometry
was fair (ICC 0.62 - 0.96).
In addition to successful completion of modified training and high-load rehabilitation exercise, shoulder extension strength values of 90% or greater compared to the player's unaffected side, as measured by handheld dynamometry
, were used as a criterion for return to unrestricted training (Phase 7) [Table 3].
combined with ultrasonography is the gold standard method for measuring passive tendon stiffness.
is a safe, reliable, and reproducible method to assess joint torque, providing the strength of individuals under different types of contraction (15).
is a method used to measure muscle strength and investigate the characteristics of a given muscle over time (10-12).