Genes including tektin-2 (TEKT2) , dynein
axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5), DNAH11 , heat shock protein-70 , peroxiredoxin-6 , protamine 2  and proteins including vesicle associated membrane protein 4 , outer dense fiber protein (ODF) , a-kinase anchoring protein 4 , calcium and integrin binding 1 , actin beta (ACTB) have been found to be associated with low-motility sperm (asthenospermia) in mice, swine, humans and cattle.
Tyl and Friedman (28) elucidated this abnormality and stated that AA binds motor proteins kinesin and dynein
, thereby halting transaxonal transport and leading to distal axonopathy.
Further study suggested that the retrograde transport, but not nuclear transport, of STAT3 transcription factors along axons is impaired in KPNA1 knockout mice, implying a novel role of KPNA1 as a cargo-binding adaptor to dynein
(2, 3) Such defects are identified in approximately 90%(3) of PCD patients and involve the outer dynein
arms, inner dynein
arms or both.
A number of vanadium species are found to be effective as external cofactors, while inhibits enzymes (lipoprotein lipase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, tyrosine phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, adenylate cyclase, cytochrome oxidase and glycogen synthase) function and stimulates the function of (H+/K+-ATPase, phosphofructokinase, myosin ATPase, dynein
, Na+-K+-ATPase, adenylate kinase and choline esterase) [8, 9].
The cilia of the 9 + 2 axoneme usually contain dynein
arms that link the microtubule doublets, and the cilia are motile.
At anaphase, because of the force created at astral microtubule disassembly by the cortical motor protein, dynein
, the astral spindle was pulled toward the cortex.
In this way, it would destabilize microtubule assembly, cargo and samurai proteins dynamicity (such as dynein
, cofactor dynactin, kinesin, and samurai protein katanin), vesicle transport.
Interestingly, in pseudorabies virus (PRV; a porcine alphaherpesvirus), there does appear to be some virus-specificity in attachment of virions to dynein
motor proteins (for axonal transport) versus kinesin motor proteins (for axonal and/or dendritic transport) .
About three dozens of individual Hcy-proteins have been identified in humans and animals, including albumin, fibrinogen , collagen , dynein
, actin and E-cadherin , and major urinary protein .
In addition, by downregulating some of the proteins involved in endocytosis, such as dynein
2 , the uptake of exosomes by receptor cells is also inhibited.
Tuma, "Alcohol-induced defects in hepatic transcytosis may be explained by impaired dynein
function," Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol.