All the pregnant patients presenting with New York Heart Association Classification class >II dyspnea
were included by consecutive non probability sampling technique after informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval, from second trimester (13 weeks) onwards with a live fetus.
, the sensation of difficult or labored breathing, is the most common symptom in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the primary symptom that limits physical activity in more advanced disease.
is a common symptom affecting up to the majority of adult patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) and it may arise from a wide range of clinical conditions on the EDs such as heart failure, community-acquired pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma.
, a distressing symptom of breathlessness that often leads patients to seek treatment, is a common clinical manifestation of pneumonia (Coccia, Palkowski, Schweitzer, Motoshi, & Ntusi, 2016).
The improvement in Dyspnea
(Borg and Visual Analogue scale) and exercise tolerance (6-minute walk test) and MMRC grading were assessed 8 weeks later and the results of two groups were compared.
PARTICIPATION IN AT LEAST 20 days of pulmonary rehabilitation by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) resulted in statistically significant improvements in quality of life, perception of health status, functional capacity, dyspnea
, and depression, in a retrospective analysis.
is a common symptom that affects up to 50% of patients admitted to acute, tertiary care hospitals and a quarter of patients seeking care in ambulatory settings .
The exclusion criteria were a Glasgow score < 15, Borg dyspnea
score > 7 , instable heart disease, limited mobility, hemodynamic instability, and mechanical ventilation.
All patients were stratified according to the degree of dyspnea
on admission, and interventions were given accordingly.
Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue fatigue, palpitation (feeling heart beats), or dyspnea
(shortness of breath).
Cardiac myxomas are considered an uncommon cause of peripartum dyspnea
, with only 17 cases having been reported during pregnancy during the last 40 years.
For patients with COPD, dyspnea
is a key complaint that is causally interrelated with impaired exercise capacity by creating a major barrier to the patient's ability to live an active life.