Led by MC's Big O and Jeopardy, their tongue-rmly-in-cheek breakthrough Scouse Ebonics
brought national heat with airplay on 1Xtra but it's their grime-induced music and heavy-hitter Hold Up which display serious weight.
Williams' conceptualizing of concepts such as Ebonics
and Afrocizing begin an early discourse on the definition of Africana psychology.
The Oakland Ebonics
controversy in the mid-1990s exemplifies the policy effects of language definition.
A schoolboard out in Oakland touts Ebonics
as a tongue,
Language Ideology and Dialect: Understanding the Oakland Ebonics
Controversy' Available online: http://www.
That George Borden uses ebonics
to tell this story is significant.
For instance, slang could be contrasted with colloquialism, non-standard language, vulgarism, taboo, euphemism, jargon, idiom, neologism or dialect, while African American could be compared to African American Vernacular English, Afro-American Vernacular English, Black English Vernacular, Ebonics
or Gangsta Talk.
She had some strong material, but for me, the funniest part of her set was her terrible accent impressions and use of Ebonics
to reference US rap culture, classic stuff there Mary
Among its more egregious examples--signs of various kinds at Tea Party rallies styling Obama--sometimes in blackface paint-up--as monkey, as bone-through-the-nose-African, as "long-legged mack daddy," as Muslim; uses of the n-word on a sign and flung verbally toward black congressional members at a March rally; and Tea Party leader Mark Williams' blog, ventriloquizing NAACP President Ben Jealous in an Ebonics
rant offered back through time to a supposedly racist President Lincoln, protesting having to work for a living and longing for a return to the "easy gig" of slavery.
Despite the championing of creole languages from West Africa to the Pacific, Gullah remains, in Hamilton's words, a largely unexamined "cultural curiosity" grouped with ebonics
, hiphop culture, and street slang, relegated to the status of "vanishing," and all too vulnerable to attack even by such luminaries as comedian Bill Cosby.
This was certainly reflected in the literature at the time; although there was a substantial amount of information about Black Englishes and the Ebonics
debate, there was relatively little about Aboriginal forms of English, still less that dealt with the issues from a Canadian perspective.
The backlash against proposals to include Ebonics
in the curriculum of schools in Oakland, California, was rooted in the belief that African American varieties of English are not economically viable and therefore unsuitable for schooling (Smitherman & Villanueva, 2003).