would point out that a literal parallel to the metaphor of a toxic society is the actual contamination of much of the environment.) Because it sees "all existing religions as irrevocably cast in a patriarchal mold" (King, 1989, p.
It is interesting to note that while scientists were thinking humans too small, ecofeminists
and writers such as Ursula K.
Donna Haraway suggests that one way to break down the dualisms employed to "naturalize" exploitation is to acknowledge nature and women as active subjects rather than passive objects, and "ecofeminists
have perhaps been most insistent on some version of the world as active subject, not as resource to be mapped and appropriated in bourgeois, Marxist, or masculinist projects." (8) Ecofeminism cannot merely reverse patriarchal dualisms that insist on mutually exclusive qualities by upending the value hierarchy, nor can it deny affinities, but it must loosen the boundaries, dispense with binaries, and allow for permeations, elisions, and the illumination of connections increasingly occluded by sophisticated technology and corporate production systems.
In exploring what ecofeminists
recognize as interwoven forms of domination, Feminism and the Environment investigates the earth's health and future in the context of women's life experiences, focusing on both women's perceived responsibilities as caretakers of the land and the limitations imposed upon them as owners and managers of the land.
Warren, one of many ecofeminists
whose research concerns "the important connections between how one treats women, people of color, and the underclass on one hand and how one treats the nonhuman natural environment on the other" (Warren qtd.
Over the last 30 years, ecofeminists
have urged us to include the struggle to preserve the natural environment in our fight for women's equality (see Susan Mann).
Though a variety of perspectives exists, ecofeminists
, in general, see connections between how the world is viewed and treated and how women are viewed and treated, making parallels between ecology and feminism.
agree that the marginalization and exploitation of both nature and women are a consequence of historically male-dominated societies.
Scee points out that, contrary to some theories by ecofeminists
, she found more similarities than dissimilarities in gender in regard to this activity, which has also blurred the lines between classes and work and hobby.
Because the erotic was so often used to reinforce male domination of both women and nature, many ecofeminists
seek ungendered, non-erotic metaphors for the land.
have identified as "the logic of domination,"
As Karen Warren has noted, ecofeminists
agree that 'there are important connections between the domination of women (and other human subordinates) and the domination of nature', but beyond that there is extensive debate about 'what the nature of these alleged connections is and which, if any, are accurate descriptions of the nature and root sources of the twin dominations' (Warren 1996: x).