Some researchers have used the Heath-Carter method to classify individual athletes according to three essential elements, namely, endomorphy (relative adiposity), meso morphy (the tendency for relative musculoskeletal development) and ectomorphy
(the tendency to relative linearity), which results in the somatotype or biotype of the subject.
It was found that these studies assessed different age groups and the assessments were made with only three main somatotype classifications which consisted of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy
. Different from previous studies, the examinations were made with 13 subgroups of three main somatotype classifications and six subgroups which were found were assessed.
Dancers were mostly ectomorphic-mesomorph (endomorphy: 2.6 [+ or -] 0.54, mesomorphy: 3.99 [+ or -] 0.77, ectomorphy
: 3.23 [+ or -] 0.54).
The wrestlers have very high values for the mesomorphic characteristic, low endomorphy and ectomorphy
, also there is no difference between Freestyle and Greco-Roman in terms of the ratings (Yoon, 2002).
The three main components measured in somatotyping include endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy
. Endomorphy is a measure of relative fatness, mesomorphy is a measure of relative musculo-skeletal robustness, and ectomorphy
is a measure of proportionality between body weight and height (29).
From the analysis of Table 2, referring to the somatotype presented by the total number of athletes (N = 27) in the present study, the highest mean was found for the second component, mesomorphy, followed by endomorphy and ectomorphy
, characterizing this group of gymnasts as mesoendomorphs.
Most of the ballet dancers observed in this study were characterized as ectomorphic-mesomorph, meaning that mesomorphic component was dominant, while ectomorphy
was greater as compared to endomorphy (endomorphy: 2.6[+ or -]0.54, mesomorphy: 3.99[+ or -]0.77, ectomorphy
: 3.23[+ or -]0.54).
There was a predominance of meso and ectomorphy
, with prevalence of mesomorphy.
They found significant differences in terms of values of endomorphy (p <0.01) and ectomorphy
(p < 0.01).
Body Composition and Somatotype of Elite Male Wrestlers Characteristics Mean [+ or -] SD 95% CI Body Composition Percent Body Fat 13.6 [+ or -] 3.0 12.2-15.0 Absolute Body Fat, kg 9.1 [+ or -] 2.6 7.8-10.3 Sum of 6 Skinfolds, mm (a) 72.3 [+ or -] 29.3 58.9-85.6 Sum of 8 Skinfolds, mm (b) 100.5 [+ or -] 39.9 82.3-118.7 Muscle Mass, % 46.4 [+ or -] 2.2 45.4-47.4 Absolute Muscle Mass, kg 30.7 [+ or -] 4.6 28.6-32.8 Indexes Ponderal Index 41.0 [+ or -] 1.8 40.2-41.8 BAI (c) 25.1 [+ or -] 3.6 23.5-26.8 Somatotype Endomorphy 3.8 [+ or -] 1.5 3.1-4.5 Mesomorphy 5.3 [+ or -] 1.4 4.7-6.0 Ectomorphy
1.6 [+ or -] 1.0 1.1-2.1 X-axis 2.1 [+ or -] 2.3 1.1-3.2 Y-axis 5.2 [+ or -] 3.5 3.6-6.8 (a) Sum of triceps, subscapular, supraspinal, abdominal, front thigh, and medial calf.
Age (years) 37.3 (7) Weight (kg) 73.5 (8) Height (m) 175 (9) BMI (kg x [m.sup.-2)] 23.9 (2) Endomorphy 2.8 (0.9) Mesomorphy 4.5 (0.9) Ectomorphy
2.1 (1.0) Body Fat (%) 12.8% (2) gaaait Body Muscle (%) 48.2% (4) 6 skinfolds (mm) 67.7 (20) BMI = Body Mass Index.
Specifically, in accordance with the formula, prominence of ectomorphy
or mesomorphy was assigned as "a rating of at least three points higher ...