The reason for this rule is that deceit to constitute estafa should be the efficient cause
of the defraudation.
In addition to polluting grazing lands and tourists sites, he said non-biodegradable bags mostly find their way to open garbage dumps, landfill sites or municipal sewers, making sewage disposal systems less efficient cause
flash flooding in urban areas and increase cost of utility operations.
Plato reasoned to a summum bonum responsible for the order in nature and worthy of veneration, Aristotle to a self-thinking intellect, to a first efficient cause
, and to an ultimate final cause.
(40) The Doctrine of the Four Causes seeks to explain a concept by elucidating its various causes: its Formal Cause, Final Cause, Material Cause, and Efficient Cause
. The word "cause" in the Doctrine is used in a broader sense than in contemporary usage--here, it refers to "any factor that is necessary to bring about an effect through an intrinsic relationship to that effect".
The doctrine holds that the efficient cause
that sets other causes in motion is the cause to which the loss is attributable.
There is its efficient cause
, which is what brought it into existence--its parents.
Co., (24) the court noted that in determining whether a particular loss was caused by an event covered by an insurance where other, non-covered events operate more closely in time or space in producing the loss, the question of whether the covered event was sufficiently proximate to the loss to require that the insurer compensate the insured will depend on whether it was the dominant and efficient cause
The Prime Mover, as First Cause, is not therefore an efficient cause
. When Aristotle says that the chain of efficient causes
needs a cause in order to avoid an infinite regress, he is not saying that such a series needs an efficient first cause.
"As such, it would not be feasible to apply the EPC doctrine because no efficient cause
can be determined."
The "efficient cause
" refers to the agent who carries out the deed.