In the case of solitons behaving like robust clumps, destructive interference is analogous to an elastic collision
between two particles that separate after hitting each other.
Through collision theory and rock dynamic characteristic [15, 16] test research, the collision between the solid backfill materials and the buffering device is divided into two cases, the elastic collision
and the plastic collision.
While only elastic collision
between [Cu.sup.+] and [Ar.sup.0] is included, [Ar.sup.+] can also transfer its charge to a slow neutral [Ar.sup.0] which in fact causes significant deceleration of the ion.
The collision area can be seen as elastic collision
involving greater contact stiffness when the pedestal moves downward and collides with the foundation, and the contact stiffness between the left and right edges and foundation is [K.sub.2yd] and [K.sub.3yd], respectively.
Descriptively, the device is the hallmark of the so called perfectly elastic collisions--given an encounter between two bodies, an elastic collision
is said to take place when the ratio of relative speeds after and before the impact--coefficient of restitution -, equals 1.
(Vectors are written in bold type and nonbold letters indicate quantity magnitude.) In an elastic collision
, [V.sub.c] = ([m.sub.p][v.sub.p] + [m.sub.b][v.sub.b])/[M.sub.pb] is the velocity of the center of mass (C.M.) and relative velocity of the system is [v.sub.pb] = [v.sub.p] - [v.sub.b].
There is a silicon nucleus displacement when the energy of an incident particle (projectile) transferred to the nucleus in the elastic collision
is higher than a threshold displacement energy Ed.
The theory was based on assumption of absolutely elastic collision
. For spheroidal surfaces, the force-deformation relation needed to estimate the duration of impact and the maximum indentation was obtained using Hertz calculations.
The predicted angular distribution for d-6C12 elastic collision
at the energies 110, 120 and 170MeV is shown in Figs.
The major difference between elastic and inelastic collisions is that in elastic collisions
kinetic energy is conserved, and in inelastic collisions it is not.
The overall implication being that traditional theorists unwittingly put the cart ahead of the horse by beginning the teaching of kinetic theory in terms of gas molecule's momentum and elastic collisions
. This ignores the fact that elastic collisions
are rare hence may be an unnecessary, illogical, unrealistic, conceptualization when applied to kinetic theory!