Two types of skin aging exist: intrinsic aging, which includes changes due to normal maturity and occurs almost in all individuals; and extrinsic aging, caused by the extrinsic factors such as ultraviolet light, smoking and other environmental pollutant(s).5 Clinical features of intrinsic aging include skin dryness, wrinkling, laxity, decreased elasticity, lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, skin fragility and thinning, ecchymosis, depigmented hair, fine hair/vellus hair, diffuse hair loss and thin, brittle nails.6 The clinical features of extrinsic aging include skin dryness, wrinkling, laxity, decreased elasticity with elastosis
, skin fragility and thinning, stellate pseudoscars, freckling, lentigines and seborrheic keratosis.6
A definite diagnosis of PPFE is made based on the constellation features of upper zone fibrosis of the visceral pleura (described as intense by Kusagaya et al (10); Figures 1 and 2); prominent homogenous subpleural intra-alveolar fibrosis with alveolar septal elastosis
(Figure 3); sparing of the parenchyma away from the pleura (Figure 1); scant, patchy lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates; and small numbers, at the very most, of fibroblastic foci.
Apart from that people with more number of sunburns, sun damaged skin like liver spots, actinic keratosis and solar elastosis
, are at a greater risk of developing skin cancer.
Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis
The following disorders should be considered in the differ-ential diagnosis of porokeratosis: elastosis
perforans for PM, actinic keratosis and stucco keratosis for DSAP, lichen sclero-sus et atrophicus, lichen planus, acrokeratosis verruciformis, Bowen's disease, and squamous cell carcinoma for single le-sions (13).
Mean age of the patients correlated significantly with the presence or absence of solar elastosis
(70.1 [+ or -] 5.8 v 55.2 [+ or -] 16.2 years; P=0.01) and splinter haemorrhage (61.8 [+ or -] 13 v 52.2 [+ or -] 16.7 years; P=0.018).
(8) Sun-damaged skin may exhibit dermal solar elastosis
and nuclear crowding but only minor nuclear abnormalities or epidermal thickening.
In the dermis, there may be collagen degeneration that appears similar to solar elastosis
They also found similar increases in survival likelihood related to overall sun exposure and to the presence of marked solar elastosis
Because of the imperfect wound repair of the damaged collagenous matrix and the accumulation of elastotic material, known as solar elastosis
or solar scar, the skin eventually sags and wrinkles after chronic LTV exposure.
(4) Glycation also can affect elastin: Recent research suggests that glycation can engender elastosis
, which is elastin that is abnormally clumped together and presents more frequently in aged skin.
A CSL is a localized, mass-forming, proliferative breast lesion, often having a stellate shape, with a central area of scarring and elastosis
, derived from an obliterated duct.