d], an electric potential field [phi] : [OMEGA] x [0, T] [right arrow] R, an electric displacement
field D : [OMEGA] x [0, T] [right arrow] [R.
k] are the strain tensor, the electric displacement
vector, and the electric field vector, respectively; [C.
where [sigma], D are stress and electric displacement
As mentioned in , it must be emphasized that in the x, y transverse plane, the magnetic field is a purely gradient field [nabla] x H = 0 (with open field lines, beginning and ending on different wires), and that the electric displacement
vector is a purely solenoidal field [nabla] x D = 0 (with closed field lines, embracing one or several wires).
The lower electric displacement
observed in some composite films could be attributed to the lower film quality, which makes the applied electric field strength on the films to its breakdown strength.
It is necessary to satisfy boundary conditions so that the potential and the normal component of the electric displacement
vector are continuous, and the conducting plane potential is equal to zero.
The electric displacement
may be obtained as a linear combination of the strain and electric field as follows [17, 18]
The used FEM tool analyzes this piezoelectric effect of the AlN layer through the stress relationships between the stress T, the strain S, electric field E, and electric displacement
H1 is available with electric displacement
(EDC), non-feedback proportional (NFPE), and three-position (FNR) controls where the same control is used throughout the displacement range.
The strain, electric field, stress, and electric displacement
can be expressed by these complex potentials (Wang, 2001, Hirth, 1982), and the forces acting on a screw dislocation are given with:
If electric displacement
is substituted by electric field and current continuity is observed, It follows;
The propulsion transmission uses two Sauer-Sundstrand variable displacement pumps with electric displacement