But the source of the most energetic ones--those carrying a punch of 1018 or even 1020 electron volts
(eV)--has been a mystery since the first of these was detected in 1962.
While the Moon's gamma-ray glow is surprising and impressive, the Sun does shine brighter in gamma rays with energies higher than 1 billion electron volts
. Cosmic rays with lower energies do not reach the Sun because its powerful magnetic field screens them out.
Using the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, a different team of researchers collected readings of gamma rays exceeding 100 trillion electron volts
. The findings of their study were published in the online database (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.12518.pdf) Arxiv .
Moving at top speed, your average ant will create roughly the equivalent of one trillion electron volts
. So, multiply that by 13, and you have some idea of how much energy we're talking.
Tuesday's experiment took place at a record total collision energy of 7 billion billion electron volts
and at a nano-fraction of a second slower than the speed of light in the 16.8 mile Large Hadron Collider, about a hundred meters below the Swiss-French border.
In a milestone in the 10 billion USD Large Hadron Collider's ambitious bid to reveal details about theoretical particles and microforces, scientists at the CERN collided the beams and took measurements at a combined energy level of seven trillion electron volts
. The collisions herald a new era for researchers working on the machine in a 17-mile (27 kilometer) tunnel below the Swiss-French border at Geneva, reported the AP on Wednesday.
But on Monday, researchers achieved a record energy level of 1.18 trillion electron volts
, and without incident.
The new results show an unexpected surplus of cosmic ray electrons at very high energy - 300-800 billion electron volts
- that must come from a previously unidentified source or from the annihilation of very exotic theoretical particles used to explain dark matter.
The field accelerates the ions toward the target with energies up to several hundred electron volts
. On impact, particles start a cascade of collisions near the surface, ejecting sputtered target atoms.
The resulting energies, ranging from 3 million to 10 million electron volts
and coupled with 1 kW to 50 kW of power, have sufficient energy to penetrate most products in their final shipping containers.
of Middleton, Wis., for commercialization of a revolutionary microcalorimeter-based X-ray detector with an energy resolution of two electron volts
, some 50 times better than conventional semiconductor-based detectors.
The facilities will include a proton synchrotron, in which protons will be accelerated to 50 billion electron volts
, and a neutron diffusing facility.