But the source of the most energetic ones--those carrying a punch of 1018 or even 1020 electron volts
(eV)--has been a mystery since the first of these was detected in 1962.
Moving at top speed, your average ant will create roughly the equivalent of one trillion electron volts
But no matter how fast these electrons spiral, they can't radiate away the 73 billion and 95 billion electron volts
the two photons carried.
The new results show an unexpected surplus of cosmic ray electrons at very high energy - 300-800 billion electron volts
- that must come from a previously unidentified source or from the annihilation of very exotic theoretical particles used to explain dark matter.
The field accelerates the ions toward the target with energies up to several hundred electron volts
The resulting energies, ranging from 3 million to 10 million electron volts
and coupled with 1 kW to 50 kW of power, have sufficient energy to penetrate most products in their final shipping containers.
for commercialization of a revolutionary microcalorimeter-based X-ray detector with an energy resolution of two electron volts
, some 50 times better than conventional semiconductor-based detectors.
The facilities will include a proton synchrotron, in which protons will be accelerated to 50 billion electron volts
, and a neutron diffusing facility.
When positrons (also called positive electrons) collide with ordinary, negatively charged electrons, they mutually destroy each other and spawn gamma rays that have a very specific energy: 511,000 electron volts
These extremely energetic particles become ever more scarce at the highest energies and, except for the three ultra-high-energy particles, no cosmic rays have been seen with more energy than 30-40,000,000 trillion electron volts
By 1954, a particle accelerator capable of accelerating protons to an energy of 5 to 6 billion electron volts
(BeV) had been built at the University of California.
and] masses of at least five billion electron volts