Best accommodated to such a scenario are particles, say neutrinos, having the rest energy of a few electronvolts
. In this case they give the main contribution to dark mass.
Current estimates suggest that neutrinos may have a mass of roughly 2 electronvolts
. In comparison, the electron has a mass of 511,000 electronvolts
The machine at CERN, Europe's particlephysics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, will restart with collisions at 13 trillion electronvolts
almost double the current record.
With collision energies capable of reaching 14 tera electronvolts
(TeV), the collider is designed to push a proton beam close to the speed of light, sending it whizzing 11,000 times a second around a 27-kilometer (17-mile) tunnel some 100 meters (32 5 feet) below the ground in an area straddling the Swiss-French border.
Positron spectroscopy uses a variable monoenergy positron beam (from the electronvolts
range to several kiloelectronvolts) (27) coupled with PAL and momentum density measurements was presented recently, and it is capable of probing free volume profiles from the surface, through the interfaces, and to the bulk.
The SE mode is the most important because these electrons can be collected easily using a positively biased collector grid placed on one side of the specimen due to the low exit energy of a few electronvolts
. Unlike SE, BSE move on straight trajectories and are not affected by electrostatic collection fields (Reimer, 1998).
That should result in an operating proton beam energy of 14 trillion electronvolts
, or teraelectronvolts - another great leap in capability.
The alliance projects to roll out application modules of these wide bandgap semiconductors, whose electronic band gaps are larger than one or two electronvolts
In studies reported November 2 at the 2009 Fermi Symposium, VERITAS observed gamma rays ranging from 700 billion to several trillion electronvolts
from the galaxy M82, about 12 million light-years from Earth.
A teraelectronvolt (TeV) is equivalent to the energy level of a flying mosquito, while CERN wants to ultimately achieve maximum power of 7.0 teraelectronvolts or trillion electronvolts
in its bid to replicate the big bang
Gillow's team, funded by the Department of Energy Office of Science, uses "soft" X-rays (up to 800 electronvolts
, a relatively small amount of energy) to study the chemical structure of organic compounds.