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An electron-deficient chemical compound or group that is attracted to electrons and tends to accept electrons. Also called Lewis acid.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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Meanwhile, the reaction of 2, 2, 2-Trifluoroethylamine derivatives with electrophile has been a complementary approach for the synthesis of 1-substituted-2, 2, 2-trifluoroethylamine.
A high value of electrophilicity describes a good electrophile while a small value of electrophilicity describes a good nucleophile [41].
The ortho substitution was induced via the complexation of [Ba.sup.2+] to the oxygens of phenol and formaldehyde, positioning the electrophile for attack by the newly formed negatively charged dipole on the phenol ortho position.
"They react with a cysteine residue of the 'sensor' protein Keap1, inducing Nrf2 to be released in the cytosol and then transferred to the nucleus where the antioxidant or electrophile response element (ARE) is finally activated, leading to the increased expression of genes, increasing the nucleophilic tone, and thus preventing an alteration of homeostasis due to an excess of response," they said.
Also, 4-HNE is a strong electrophile that can change cellular redox state significantly by decreasing cellular sulfhydryl compounds such as glutathione (GSH).
Based on the global electrophilicity index, the strongest electrophile among the complexes studied is [Ni(EDA2BB)[(O[H.sub.2]).sub.2]], whereas [Cu(EDA2BB) [(O[H.sub.2]).sub.2]] is the weakest electrophile.
A good nucleophile is characterized by a low value of [omega] whereas a good electrophile is characterized by a high value of [omega].
For example, if the chosen feature were "electrophile", then dividing the dataset according to this feature would result in two datasets: one with all electrophiles and one with no electrophiles.
Also, [Ca.sub.2+],76), (77) receptor stimulation (67, 78) and the lipid electrophile 15-deoxy-[[DELTA].sup.12,14]-prostaglandin [J.sub.2] (79-82) are known to activate TRPA1.
Holtzclaw et al., "Protection against electrophile and oxidant stress by induction of the phase 2 response: fate of cysteines of the Keap1 sensor modified by inducers," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Forman, "C-Myc is a Nrf2-interacting protein that negatively regulates phase II genes through their electrophile responsive elements," IUBMB Life, vol.
According to Lukkari, Taavitsainen, Vaisanen, and Haimi (2009), the role of GST is to detoxify electrophile intermediate compounds by conjugation with glutathione and several xenobiotics and heavy metals induced increased activity of the GST system in exposed organisms.