Meanwhile, the reaction of 2, 2, 2-Trifluoroethylamine derivatives with electrophile
has been a complementary approach for the synthesis of 1-substituted-2, 2, 2-trifluoroethylamine.
A high value of electrophilicity describes a good electrophile
while a small value of electrophilicity describes a good nucleophile .
The ortho substitution was induced via the complexation of [Ba.sup.2+] to the oxygens of phenol and formaldehyde, positioning the electrophile
for attack by the newly formed negatively charged dipole on the phenol ortho position.
"They react with a cysteine residue of the 'sensor' protein Keap1, inducing Nrf2 to be released in the cytosol and then transferred to the nucleus where the antioxidant or electrophile
response element (ARE) is finally activated, leading to the increased expression of genes, increasing the nucleophilic tone, and thus preventing an alteration of homeostasis due to an excess of response," they said.
Also, 4-HNE is a strong electrophile
that can change cellular redox state significantly by decreasing cellular sulfhydryl compounds such as glutathione (GSH).
Based on the global electrophilicity index, the strongest electrophile
among the complexes studied is [Ni(EDA2BB)[(O[H.sub.2]).sub.2]], whereas [Cu(EDA2BB) [(O[H.sub.2]).sub.2]] is the weakest electrophile
A good nucleophile is characterized by a low value of [omega] whereas a good electrophile
is characterized by a high value of [omega].
For example, if the chosen feature were "electrophile
", then dividing the dataset according to this feature would result in two datasets: one with all electrophiles
and one with no electrophiles
Also, [Ca.sub.2+],76), (77) receptor stimulation (67, 78) and the lipid electrophile
15-deoxy-[[DELTA].sup.12,14]-prostaglandin [J.sub.2] (79-82) are known to activate TRPA1.
Holtzclaw et al., "Protection against electrophile
and oxidant stress by induction of the phase 2 response: fate of cysteines of the Keap1 sensor modified by inducers," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Forman, "C-Myc is a Nrf2-interacting protein that negatively regulates phase II genes through their electrophile
responsive elements," IUBMB Life, vol.
According to Lukkari, Taavitsainen, Vaisanen, and Haimi (2009), the role of GST is to detoxify electrophile
intermediate compounds by conjugation with glutathione and several xenobiotics and heavy metals induced increased activity of the GST system in exposed organisms.