Based on the product, the global polyetherketone market is segmented as: Electrophilic
substitution Nucleophilic substitution Based on the application, the global polyetherketone market is segmented as: Machine parts Nuclear power-plant equipment Automobile parts Aerospace components Cable insulation Pump parts Others Nucleophilic substitution polyetherketone is anticipated to showcase remarkable growth rate during the forecast period due to its wide scale application.
The nucleophilic attack of the base on the electrophilic
carbon atom of the hydrazide molecule results in the formation of a hydrazine moiety.
Enaminone have great potential as reaction intermediates and medicinal compounds due to the presence of nucleophilic and electrophilic
sites (Edafiogho et al., 1992).
(26,27) The ability of HNE to exert a number of toxicological effects has been attributed to its electrophilic
[alpha], [beta]-unsaturated carbonyl moiety that can react through 1, 2 and 1, 4 additions with nucleophiles such as cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues.
It has beneficial functions such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, photoreceptor, feeding repellant, and visual attractor. Among these uses, flavonoids are known as antioxidants, which decrease the formation of free radicals through scavenging free radicals by hydrogen donation. Flavonoids also activate important defense enzymes battling oxidative stress and electrophilic
toxicants producing prooxidant activity. On the other hand, alkaloids are composed of nitrogen heterocyclic rings, which are found in 15-20% vascular plants. Alkaloids are water soluble due to its negative oxidation state and act as medicine for diabetes, cancer, and malaria.
The ToxCast/Tox21 in vitro assays did not substantively add to the overall evaluation of 7 remaining key characteristics of carcinogens: four had no mapped assay endpoints (genotoxic, alters DNA repair or causes genomic instability, immunosuppression, and immortalization), and very little activity was seen across all the compounds for the others (electrophilic
or can be metabolically activated, induces epigenetic alterations, and induces chronic inflammation).
(2012), the decolorization process via ozonization is rapid in both alkaline and acid conditions due to the electrophilic
nature of the direct (attack by [O.sub.3] molecules) and indirect (attack via HO* radicals) ozonation process, which considerably facilitates the reaction with the azogroups (chromophore centers).
The mechanism of polymerization of oxazinic compounds is divided into two main steps: the first is the opening of the oxazinic ring after the absorption of heat and the second occurs through electrophilic
substitutions from the iminium ion formed in the ring opening.
Molecular Electrostatic Potential, [THETA](r), has been widely used for predicting the sites that are susceptible to nucleophilic, electrophilic
, and free radical attacks on molecular species, as well as molecular docking modes for quite a long time.
The functions [f.sup.+.sub.k] and [f.sup.-.sub.k] are, respectively, related to nucleophilic and electrophilic
We hypothesized that LIM is metabolized to a cis-enedial intermediate (3, Scheme 1), an electrophilic
species, which may play a critical role in enzyme inactivation activities of LIM.