Severely affected patients also develop severe metabolic acidosis, elevated levels of 5-oxoproline in urine and blood, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and central nervous system disorders showing mental retardation, seizures, spasticity, ataxia and intention tremors, pathological electroretinograms
and retinal pigmentation (10).
In this section, we describe findings obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and bioelectrical changes through electrophysiological examinations, specifically electroretinograms
(ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP).
Howe, "Visual evoked cortical potentials and pattern electroretinograms
in Parkinson's disease and control subjects," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol.
Ng et al., "Multifocal electroretinograms
predict onset of diabetic retinopathy in adult patients with diabetes," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
 further demonstrated that subfoveal blood flow is reduced in patients with RP and correlates with central cone function, as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and assessed by focal electroretinograms
Contribution of retinal neurons to d-wave of primate photopic electroretinograms
. Vision Res 2006;46:658-64.
in patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1994;72:537-544.
In fact, early signs of neural dysfunction in the retina, namely, alterations in electroretinograms
and loss of colour and contrast sensitivity, occur before the detection of microvascular changes in diabetic patients and animals [2-5].
Terasaki, "Flicker electroretinograms
before and after intravitreal ranibizumab injection in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion," Acta Ophthalmologica, vol.
They used electroretinograms
, or ERGs, to test retinal function and found that retinal function was decreased when the mouth was open wider, suggesting that blood flow to the retina or brain was decreased or even absent.
Characteristics of Electroretinograms
in Canine Eyes with Cataracts.
Kondo, "Circadian rhythm of electroretinograms
in living zebrafish larvae," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.